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Overpopulation In China

Contributing Factors, Consequences and Solutions of Overpopulation

erin mcmanus

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of Overpopulation In China

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Contributing Factors, Consequences and Solutions Overpopulation In China The Causes of Overpopulation There are various contributing factors to
overpopulation. These factors vary and range
depending on demographic location, climate,
economy ect... Consequences of Overpopulation Urbanization Solutions to Overpopulation China's One Child Policy


Development The World Is Stepping Up! China's One Child Policy Implemented in 1979

National level of attempt to combat overpopulation

Had been revised since 1979 to prohibit sex-selective abortion and sex discrimination of infants

There are several penalties for not following the One Child Policy Increased Birth Rate Fertility treatments available today create a better chance of conceiving. They are able to help eliminate infertility problems and promote the expansion of population In developed countries such as America pregnancies are safer resulting in healthy born children. However, in developing countries where the medical system is not as advanced as ours due to the economy safe births are not as common. The higher the chance of losing children, the more children a family will attempt to have. This can lead to larger family sizes. However, what might not be prevalent knowledge to these nations is that 63% of pregnancies result in live births and 1/3 of the population growth is from unwanted pregnancies. Decreased Death Rate Medical advances have resulted in the treatment of many once "incurable" diseases. There are more effective ways to decrease the spread of epidemics and treat critical health ailments. Lack of Education Developing nations such as India and Africa lack the funds to attend educational institutions. It is this lack of education that leads to a lesser understanding for the need to curb the population growth. The less educated societies (developing nations) lack the awareness that developed nations such as America have on methods such as birth control and family planning Lack of awareness assists in the resistance of such methods However, with that being said some in 200 million women wanting birth control cannot receive it due to factors such as culture, religion or economy. Cultural Influences Cultural factors play a key role in determining population growth depending on location In cultures such as India and Africa where contraceptives are considered either taboo or unheard of large families and considered the norm. Chinese cultures prefer male children which causes families to continuously birth children until the desired sex is obtained Immigration/Emigration When individuals and families relocate to other places of the world it results in various consequences If the immigration to emigration rates do not match that country will experience an increased population density People inhabiting this area will note a scarcity of natural resources. This leads to a large strain on the Earth, negatively effecting not only the said country but other regions of the world A population increase data manager concluded that in 1996 in China the population rose by the following : 10,566,667 a month 24,384,006 a week 34, 835 a day 1,451 an hour 24 a minute As of 2012 China withheld the largest population in the world at roughly 1,343,239,923 Cultures much like the Indian one give women very little say in the matter. Young women are being forced into marriage at a young age, therefore they begin to birth children for a longer period of time. -dramatic increase in global migration, travel, investment and information flows-between cities. -new and advanced technology -cities are places of so much opportunity -they offer advantage in the world: chances to secure greater income, organize political rights, benefit from education and social services, to meet other entrepreneurs or gain competitive position in a market -cities, offer urban advantage Bangalore -old city where textile production, commerce, and residential activities were clustered efficiently together -19th century: military cantonment, which joined barracks, housing for officers, military grounds, and later military research/production -20th, century: city developed specialized industrial townships -By 2000, Bangalore had 760 firms offering IT training alone China -lured to the cities in search of a better living -Special Economic Zones (SEZ) -resemble the westernized commercial cities -SEZs have acquired an influence that extends far beyond their own boundaries Modern Changes In China 1949 served as a new era of environmental change for citizens of China. Economic growth became a priority. The government was convincing citizens to view natural resources as free goods that are to be exploited without limits. This put the land under immense pressure. With the natural resources being used explicitly the average family land plot has begun to decrease. It is 0.078 (under one fifth of an acre) and even smaller in densely populated areas of eastern China. Certain cultures and religions support pro-life and anti abortion. These decisions result in a larger amount on unwanted pregnancies becoming live births History of China Environment -decreasing the capacity of natural ecosystems to regenerate or maintain renewable resources/the function of these ecosystems Think about this... -fossil fuel combustion produces the acidity to which we owe acid rain -many urge that we switch to clean renewable energy sources -technology temporarily changes as solar and wind sources replace some of the fossil fuel combustion -simultaneous increase in population size quickly reaches the limits of new available technology, forcing a change back to fossil fuels Resources -nearly 60% of the world population is malnourished -increasing density and movement of human populations facilitate the spread of diseases -as human populations continue to increase, more fresh water will be required for consumption by people, crops and livestock Political Stress -countries that are environmentally stressed, overpopulated, or both are at risk of becoming politically stressed, and of seeing their government collapse -when people are desperate and undernourished, they blame their government, which they see as responsible for failing to solve their problems -they try to emigrate, they start civil wars, they kill one another Leslieville, Toronto -city started rebuilding itself: small film, recording, and art studios rented old brick warehouses -young professionals and artisans purchased and renovated neighborhood homes -film and media companies could articulate unique economic advantages gained from clustering -as society evolves, so do communities and the businesses that define them (Brugmann, 2009.) (Brugmann, 2009) (Brugmann, 2009) (Cavendish, 2002) (Brugmann, 2009) (Balkin, 2005) Birth Control for women.

Working Women Education If it effectively curbs population growth:

Decrease the population of China to 1/8th of current population in the next 4 generations.

Has decreased fertility rate from 5.8 children/woman in the 1970s to 1.8 children/woman in 2007. The Good In the 1960's China had a population of 667 million. Between the late 1950's and early 1960's death rates rapidly increased and birth rates decreased.

For a short period of time, the population declined. Unwanted children/Infanticide -usually female due to the cultural tradition of males being favoured.

Violations of human rights (ie. forced abortions, mistreatment of female infants, etc.)

The gender gap is increasing; possibly leading to future problems with there not being enough women. The Bad In 1962 , birth rates and death rates returned to normal as food production developed again.

Between 1966 and 1976 the communist party took over china.

China still follows the One-Child Policy today, since it was introduced in 1979. International Aid


Improved Healthcare Development It is estimated that by 2020, there will be 40 million Chinese men that are unable to marry. This may lead to kidnapping and trafficking of women in China. The government may plan to draft these single men into the army to avoid social unrest (Clark, Wallace 92) (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/2827473/Chinas-military-ambition-fuels-Asian-arms-race.html (Clark, Wilson 92) Women Interestingly enough, due to the massive gender gap, female children have become more valued by parents.

There is much intention to improve the education of women and encourage them to join the workforce.

Women's equality policies (Clark, Wilson 92) (Clark, Wilson 90) (Clark, Wilson 91) (Clark, Wilson 92) (Clark, Wilson 92) Since 2002, wealthy couples within cities are beginning to have more children. They are willing to pay the resulting fine. (Clark, Wilson 91) "Overpopulation is a global challenge... yet there is no guarantee that addressing these quality-of-living issues will solve the population
problem" North America: It is expected that in 2100 population of developed countries will drop by more than 50% to barely 600 million. (Espejo 10-11) Residents of southern cities are better off than in any other area of china. The food source is more plentiful and varied due to a favorable climate and vibrant market. Residents of the south are more likely than others to continue procreating because of their bountiful resources and location. The addition of more members to this community will only begin to create a larger strain on the environment and result in diminishing resources (Oak, Manali. 2012) (Oak, Manali. 2012) (Oak, Manali. 2012) (Oak, Manali. 2012) (Oak, Manali. 2012) In 2004 the United Nations conducted a survey of 169 counties, 151 of which were developing to assess the progress they were making in attempts to solve the overpopulation problem. This review provided the countries that were not doing their part a wake up call so they could accelerate actions. 96% have taken measures to improve education 99% have adopted measures to protect women's rights and empower women economically and politically 88% have taken measures to integrate reproductive health service components into the health care system 88% have taken action to provide access to birth control for adolescents Where is the Population Core Headed? Japan, Australia and New Zealand: Will begin to stabilize at around 150 million before declining to 70 million. Most of drop will occur in Japan due to lower fertility rate Europe/Russia: Europe’s population has already started to decline slightly. Predicted population to be 290 million by 2100 -growing population means less space for plants and animals, and more for human infrastructure (Clark, Wallace. 09) (China Statistical Yearbook; National Bureau of Statistics) (Economy Watch. 2010) (Clark, Wallace. 09) The world's population increases by 2.5 people per second. In 2050 the worlds population will be 9.1 billion and china and india will account for half of that (Clark, Wilson 91) http://onechildpolicymemorializationeffort.blogspot.ca/ -decomposition of soil organic matter will accelerate the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere -people may rely more on air conditioning, thereby burning more fossil fuels and emitting more carbon dioxide (Brugmann, 2009) (Brugmann, 2009) -forest species, weakened by a degradation of a suitable environment, become more vulnerable to other threats. (i.e. fish weakened by radiation are more easily damaged by thermal pollution than healthy fish -buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is a direct cause of increased surface temperature Today China has a population of
1.3 Billion People (Muriel,Juan Pablo) (International Futures ) (http://static.technorati.com/11/03/27/30183/portrait.chinese.girl.jpg) (https://www.chinabusinessreview.com/public/1110/images/short-takes-4.jpg) (http://www.officialpsds.com/images/thumbs/World-Support-psd52642.png) (http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_o2H52OH-Kdg/TRj4LVAFvzI/AAAAAAAAAno/reBP5ytB5l8/s1600/Screen+shot+2010-12-26+at+4.16.02+PM.png) "Buddhist teachings such as The Middle Way support appropriate family planning when people feel that it would be too much of a burden on themselves or their environment to have more children." Cultural "Family planning was never a private matter; it was a ... social obligation to have more or fewer children as demanded by the common good. Too many children can upset the balance and harmony in society, so sensible planning has been valued part of human sexuality" (Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice) (http://climatecommercial.wordpress.com/2010/08/11/chinas-projected-coal-consumption-growth-implications-for-greenhouse-gas-emissions/) (Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice) (http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=premature+deaths+in+china+from+air+pollution+chart&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=626&tbm=isch&tbnid=Jg69yePPzlq3UM:&imgrefurl=http://www.esds.ac.uk/international/news/pastagenda.asp&docid=JFTWOuaieXNsvM&imgurl=http://www.esds.ac.uk/international/images/china3.gif&w=300&h=208&ei=126QUImBBamqyAHxzoGQCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=134&vpy=160&dur=44&hovh=166&hovw=240&tx=150&ty=59&sig=105529718172345867914&page=1&tbnh=131&tbnw=191&start=0&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,i:66) Taoism & Confucianism (http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=urbanization+in+china&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=626&tbm=isch&tbnid=ZYgWWsGhw5Bw4M:&imgrefurl=http://www.starmass.com/china_review/demographic_data/industrialization_urbanization.htm&docid=qT9ngwiyE3bUeM&imgurl=http://www.starmass.com/china_review/demographic_data/images/small/industrialization_urbanization.jpg&w=550&h=284&ei=HHCQUOeCM8mEyAH49oG4CA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=483&vpy=216&dur=3655&hovh=161&hovw=313&tx=163&ty=93&sig=105529718172345867914&page=1&tbnh=126&tbnw=230&start=0&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,i:87) (Clark, Bruce, and John Wallace, 2009) Activity Summary (The State of China Atlas) What Do You Think? Women life expectancy rates are going higher than men, do you think that in the future it is possible for china's sex ratios begin to correct the gender imbalance? Urban & Rural Births per 100 population
between years 1990-1996
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