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Megan White

on 5 June 2013

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Albert Bandura Observational Learning Theory Biography Conclusion Albert Bandura was born in Mundare, Canada in 1925.
He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa.
He is currently a psychology professor at the University of Stanford.
He published one his most prominent books called the "Social Learning Theory" that contributed to his development of this theory of observational learning.
He placed great emphasis on the fact that parents and other models and their behaviors have a high impact and influence on the behavior of observing children.
He was strongly interested in the aggression of children and believed that children use the same aggression tactics portrayed by their parents and other models in their lives. Three aspects of aggression 1. How aggressive patterns of behavior are developed
2. What provokes people to behave aggressively
3. What determines whether they are going to continue to resort to an aggressive behavior pattern on future occasions Observational Learning Observational learning is also known as imitation or modeling. In this process, learning occurs when individuals observe and imitate others’ behavior. Models are individuals who hold high influence and occurrence in a child's life, commonly in reference to parents, TV characters, friends, and teachers. There are four component processes influenced by the observer’s behavior following exposure to models. The four components include: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation/ reinforcement. The Bobo doll experiment was Bandura's most famous psychology experiment performed to see if children reenact behavior modeled to them in a situation. In this experiment, he had children watch a video and experience live models aggressively attacking a plastic clown called the Bobo doll. After being exposed to this behavior of the models, the children were placed in a room with toys, but they could not touch or play with them. The process of retention (first component of observational learning) had occurred. This situation made the children become angry and frustrated. Then the children were led to another room where there were identical toys used in the Bobo video. The motivation phase was in occurrence. Bandura and many other researchers founded that 88% of the children imitated the aggressive behavior towards the Bobo doll as they had seen in the video. Bobo Doll Experiment Attention is when the observer, child, attends to the behavior being portrayed by the model. During this time the child is paying attention to what the model is doing and saying.
Retention occurs to reproduce the modeled behavior by coding what they have seen into long-term memory. The retention period allows the child to retain the behavior and reenact it later.
Motor reproduction is when the child is able to physically perform the observed and learned behavior.
Motivation and reinforcements is when rewards are given for behaviors which cause that behavior to continue. Reinforcements can be positive and negative. Observational Learning
Theory Cont. Bandura's observational learning theory suggests that children are a product of the environment and behave according to the modeled behavior they experience. This theory suggests that children learn and mimic the behaviors of parents and other superior models in their lives. For instance, if a child experiences a home environment where there is abuse, this theory indicates that the child will also likely portray abusive behavior. This theory also emphasizes how social learning and media learning are also models that influence behavior. Bandura strongly believes that media , television and video games, show violence in an imaginative way that deducts the reality of violence which has high influence on children and their concept of reality concerning violence. Albert Bandura Skepticism Some skeptics, mostly concerning biological theorists, do not fully agree with Bandura's observational learning theory. The skepticism suggests that the observational theory focuses on children becoming and acting directly from model observations that sculpt them into the person they become and disregard the differences of individuals due to genetic, brain, and learning differences.
Many critics believed the Bobo doll experiment conducted was flawed because it was unethical and morally wrong. Critics believe this experiment trained the children to be aggressive which benefited the outcome results to benefit Bandura's theory. These critics also suggest that behavior is situational and depends on the individual and how they process observed behavior and choose to behave according to how they process what they are exposed to. This theory is very important to consider in future teaching experiences. The importance of this theory is that people learn from one another and behave according to the behavior they observe from others. As teachers, we should be examples as well as leaders. Our students will observe us constantly which makes us influential models of behavior in their lives. That makes it important to monitor and be aware of the example behavior we portray. References Isom, M. D. (1998). Albert Bandura- The Social Learning
Theory. Retrieved 2013, from Criminology :
http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/bandura.htm Learning Theories. (2007). Social Learning Theory
(Bandura). Retrieved 2013, from Learning Theories: http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html McLeod, S. (2011). Bandura - Social Learning Theory.
Retrieved from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/bandura.html
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