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Sinification

The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
by

luke Ballew

on 25 April 2011

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Transcript of Sinification

Sinification: Spread of Chinese culture to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam China Korea Japan Vietnam Theme One: Interactions Between Humans and the Environment -Strong centralized government; Power shared by imperial families and bureaucracy. Chang'an (Xi'an) -Strong scholar-gentry displaced aristocracy, Jinshi (dignified geniuses), examination system to advance rank, however still mostly dependent on birth. -Opened luxury trade along silk roads as well as by sea; Imperial taxation and established banks and credit system; Flying money -Art was nature based, centering on landscapes -Bhudist with Confucian undertones till Bhuddist monastaries were considered an economic threat, allowing Confucianism to take almost complete dominance. -Institution of universities and study of Confucian classics to promote scholar-gentry class. -invention of junks (ships), gunpowder, embellished buildings, sophisticated dams, bridges and dikes, and movable type. -Loyal, free peasant armies commisioned by the central government; the military was subordinate to civilian administrators -618 -907C.E. Tang Dynasty in China -206B.C.E.-220C.E. Reign of Han Dynasty in china Korea Japan Vietnam Theme Two: Development and Interaction of Cultures Korea Korea Korea Japan Japan Japan Vietnam Vietnam Vietnam Theme Three: State Building, Expansion, and Conflict Theme Four: Creation, Expasion, and Interaction of Economic Systems Theme Five: Development and Transformation of Social Structures -population was formed by migrations from Korea over the course of 200,000 years, ceasing by 200C.E. -settled as tribal groups centered around extensive agriculture -developed considerable ironworking; moving directly form stone tools to iron, skipping the bronze and copper stages -developed Shintoism: the worship of political rulers and spirits of nature (God of Rice). Became unified into a single national relgion in 700 C.E. -Korean scribes were brought in, in 700C.E., representing introduction of writing -regional tribes with cheiftoms; began obtaining larger territories -400C.E. regional ruler obtained loyalty and trust from other rulers; begginings of Imperial House; resembled national politics -established extensive agriculture by 200 C.E. -observed strict social differnces, indicated by tattoos or other body markings -7th and 8th centuires, Japanese court at Nara was awash in Chinese imports -646C.E. Taika reforms: revamping the Japanese imperial administration along Chinese lines -uneasily combined Chinese protocol with Japanese ideas of politeness and decorum -introduction of buddhism into Japan; affected aristocracy and peasant class, who reworked it into a distinctly Japanese religion -erosion of Chinese support by the aristocrats signified the failure of the Taika reforms, resulting in the decline of imperial power with the rise of aristocrats and provincial lords -emergence of similar poetry, arts, architectural styles, and even foods such as tea and rice in everyday life -Religious contemplation by Bhuddists and the pursuit of Earthly pleasures by aristocrats. -Built great gardens as well as Bhuddist temples and pagodas -Strong Bhuddist influence, consisting mostly of nature representation centering around landscape paintings -studied Confucian classics centered around Chinese history -migration of Emperor and court aristocracy in 794C.E. Heian, due to increasing Buddhist threat -in conjunction with move of capital to Heian, aristocratic power was restored to counterbalance Buddhist monks; aristocratic families, such as the fujiwara, quickly took most positions in the central government -broke from Chinese precedent by determining rank by birth and restricting mobility between the various orders -in Heian court life, women were expected to be as poised and cultured as men -Buddhist monastic order and aristocratic families vied for power -provincial elite families formed their own little, independent kindoms all over the country side of Japan, denying resources to the court, and diminishing the power of the imperial household -conflict between provincial families, Minamoto and Taira, led to the Gempei Wars, resulting in Minamoto victory with a Bakufu (military) government. -the emperor and his court were preserved, but real power was with the Minamoto and their samurai retainers, sparking the feudal age in Japan -Gempei wars brought great suffering to peasants and ravaged farmland -between 1467-1477C.E. centralized authority collapsed and Japan was divided into 300 little kingdoms ruled by warlords called daimyos -during the time of the Daimyos rituals became more elborate, swords better forged, and armor heavier, but chivalrous qualities established by the Bushi were lost -Bushi elite (generals) and their samurai retainers came to dominate civilian administrators and subjected peasants to a serf like status -despite emmisary discontinuation, Japanese traders continue to make journeys to China to exchange goods -badly trained and poorly fed peasant forces became a major force behind the growing misery of the common people -spoadic revolts were common of the peasantry -daimyos institued tax collection and irrigation projects as well as other public works to improve the conditions of their domains -promoted production of items such as silk, hemp, paper, dyes, and vegitable oils in order to improve commerce -daughters and wives of the bushi were martially trained and experienced relative social equality -women in merchant and artisan families exercised a fair degree of independence -under the daimyos, women were seen as defenseless appendages of their warrior fathers or husbands -Koreans decended from the hunting and gathering peoples of eastern Siberia and Manchuria -scholars traveled to China and a select few went to the source of Buddhist faith, India. -aristocratic migration from backward rural areas and provincial capitals to surrounding areas around the imperial palace -by the 4th century B.C.E. Korea had acquired sedentary agriculture and metal working from the Chinese -109B.C.E. the first Korean kingdom, Choson, is conquered by the Han emperor Wudi - the tribal Koguryo people in the north resisted Chinese rule, establishing an independent state that was quickly at war with two southern rivals, Silla and Paekche -Buddhism provided the key link between Korea and the successors to the Han in northeast China -patronized Buddhist artists and built temples and pagodas -Chinese writing is introduced, despite significant differences from Korean -Korean elite continued to value Buddhism over Confucianism -imports from China were all but monopolized by the tiny elite; that included fancy clothing, special teas, scrolls, and artwork -Koguryo monarch imposed a unified law code modeled after Han China and established universities, but his attempts at creating a Chinese-style bureaucracy were foiled by noble families who felt this threatened their power -an alliance between the Korean kingdom of Silla and the Tang Dynasty resulted in teh defeat of the Paekche and the Koguryo , and a system of Silla paying regular tribute to China -Silla rulers conciously strove to emulate the Tang Dynasty, and were among the most prominant foreigners in the Chinese court -Confucian examinations introduced under Silla rulers -although paying tribute to the Chinese court, there wasn't a significant economic loss for the gifts given inexchange for loyalty to the Tang far outweighed the value of the tributes -in exchange for luxury items, Korea often traded raw materials such as forest or copper -periodic revolts by the common people and the 'low born' -after a century of turmoil triggered by Mongol invasion, the Yi dynasty restored precendents of aristocratic dominance and Chinese reverence (1392-1910) -social status was dependent on birth and connections and the Confucian examination system was basically useless -relatively everything historic was accomplished by the aristocracy -depended on slaves for extreme manual labor such as mining -commoners were mainly peasants and near-slaves were called 'low borns' -in exchange for Chinese, early Viets traded ivory, tortoise shells, pearls, feathers, and aromatic wood -before being conqured, Viets paid tribute to Han China -Han introduced Chinese cropping techniques and irrigation systems that soon made Vietnamese agriculture the most productive in southeast Asia -traded with hill people for forest products, but thought less of them -the Vietnamese were settled in the Red River Valley in Southern China as early as 220B.C.E. -the introduction of Chinese agricultural techniques meant that they could support more people, resulting in the high population density characteristic of the area -the Viet's refused to settle the malarial highlands that bordered the Red River area, result in a drive south into Cham and Khmer lands -strong sense of cultural identity and didn't want to be assimilated by Chinese customs -Viets intermarried and blended with Mon-Khmer and Tai-speaking peoples, forming the distinct Vietnamese ethnicity -favored the nuclear family to the extended household preferred by the Chinese and never developed clan networks -Vietnamese women have always had a more important role in the family and in society than their Chinese counter parts -Chinese cultural impacts were unable to make an impression on the peasantry -Viets fought the Chams and the Khmers in their attempts to move south -the Vietnamese favored dressing that was deemed low class by the Chinese, they also blackened their teeth, which grossed out the Chinese -became fervently attached to the grass-roots version of Buddhism and developed art, poetry, and literature distinct from the Chinese -Vietnamese women were hostile towards Confucianism due to its placement of women as subservient to men -attended Chinese-style schools, wrote in Chinese script, and took civil service exams to obtain administrative positions -culture was later threatened by the French and conversion-minded Roman Catholic Church -where the Qin failed to conquer the Vietnamese, the Han succeeded in 111B.C.E., believing them to be southern barbarians -Viet elite cooperated, sensing their own shortcomings as a civilization -were drawn into the Chinese bureaucratic machine; developed Vietnamese equivalent to sholar-gentry though weren't as powerful -sporadic revolts by the aristocracy as well as the 'Trung Sister' revolt frustrated Chinese attempts at assimilation -obtaining independence after Tang fall, and defending it against Mongols and Ming, Vietnam started its own dynastic order with the Le dynasty (980C.E.) -power was contested betweent he dynsaty, Buddhist monks, and Confucian scholars; prevented true authority By: Luke Ballew
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