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John Stuart Mill
Transcript of John Stuart Mill
-Mathew Schwab STAR CLOSE-UP: PHILOCELEBRITY "Life has a certain flavour for those who have fought and risked all that the sheltered and protected can never experience." Born: London, 1806 Early influence: James Mill, proponent of... UTILITARIANISM Viewed as a child genius: learned Greek at age of 3.
Age 17: completed advanced courses in science, philosophy, psychology, and law. 1822: worked as clerk for father at India House
1826: suffered from schizophrenia
Became acquainted with Harriet Taylor, gifted thinker who would become Mill's collaborator and later his wife.
1858: retired as chief examiner Died on May 7, 1873, in Avignon, France. THEORIES Honourable Mentions: Language and Logic
The Science of Psychology: Associationism
Geometry and Arithmetic
Perception and Material Things
Minds DRUM ROLL, PLEASE .... Winners: Moral Philosophy: Utilitarianism
Social and Political Philosophy
The Position of Women
Political Economy STAR SPECULATIONS The Position of Women Social and Political Philosophy
On Liberty (1859) Political Economy Utilitarianism (1863) "Greatest Happiness Principle" "...actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to promote the reverse of happiness..." Mill's Refinement of Bentham Bentham: "felicific calculus" -> each unit of good & harm is equal
Mill: quality of pleasure and pain is different for each person
- some pleasure is of greater value Better to be Socrates than dissatisfied fool. Criticism How can one make every action work toward good and happiness? Mill says: be concerned with morality where sanctions are in place for bad behaviour. Thought process: Right vs. wrong Choose right Right is good, not bad Good is that which promotes the greatest happiness of all People have liberty of action, only government can interfere. Freedom of speech
Individuality Against restricting actions (even if harmful to person performing them) Includes:
Polygamy Supporter of democracy Helps individual development
Government and voters should be educated
Those elected are bound to beliefs and aims of voters
Pro institutions - push participation in society Campaigned for: status vote property education opinion thought EQUALITY Rent and profit laws are result of constitutional constraints changeable wanted to abolish wages
supported laissez faire (unrestricted freedom in commerce) Producers work with managers
Industry and population halt
People begin to focus on improving society Economy leading to social betterment: Socialist perspective: CONNECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS How John Stuart Mill can be seen in today's society IMPACT His aim: improvement of humankind His guide: principle of utility Despite having his theories stand in the shadow of idealism, John Stuart Mill was influential in his own generation. His works in social and political philosophy remain relevant today. His defenses of utilitarianism and liberty continue to inspire and guide today. CCRF Section 2 (b, c and d): Every citizen is entitled to their own opinion, thought, and expression. Peaceful assembly and association.
Section 3 (all): Every Canadian citizen has the right to vote in an election.
Section 7 (all): Every Canadian citizen has the right to life, liberty, and security.
Section 12 (all): No cruel or unusual punishment.
Section 15 (all): No one is higher or lower than the law. All are equal.
Section 28 (all) Both male and females are equal under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.