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Unit13 Leadership in sport P2/M2:

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Ehsaan Akhter

on 5 June 2014

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Transcript of Unit13 Leadership in sport P2/M2:

Separated we fall, united we stand!!
Cohesion is the word used to describe a group of people who stick togeather. Group cohesion is when a group of friends decide to get togeather with each other because they have gotten to know each other and are friends. Group cohsion can effect the project because if all the members of the team are freindly with each other they would be able to work with each other confidently and would not have much trouble with each other this would lead to them being more organised and completing the activtity quicker and more efficiently.


Cohesion
Team cohesion is when group of people band togetather with the same goal and work togeather to achieve their goal as quickly and efficiently as possible. This could effect the project becaus when working with people who we are unfamiliar with we must learn to accept them as team members which could take long but once they've gotten to know each other they would be able to adapt to each other and work to complete the task at hand.

Team cohesion
Extrinsic motivation is motivation that includes physical reward and occurs to mostly competative athletes. This kind of motivation is effective because these athletes find working towards the goal of winning a prize of much more exhilarating because it shows them competing against others to become thebest at that sport or activity and tghe best way to prove that wouldf be to win a prize such as a trophy or medal etc. An example of extrinsic motivation is shown in Floylld 'money' Mayweather this is because he claims he is the best boxer to ever because fo his multiple championship belts and winning streak.
Extrinsic Motivation
Social loafing is when one member of the team is not doing their share of the work and is taking credit when the other team members complete there part of the work and getting credit. This would have a negative effect on the team because the brest ofthe team would say that it was unfair to them because they would complete tge work and that one individual would do nothing and this would create rivalries within the team which would negatively effect teamwork.
Social Loafing!
Unit13 Leadership in sport P2/M2:
Psychological Factors

Motivation is the combination of feelings and emotions that band togeather when an individual is taking part in completing a specific goal. Its the motivation that keeps the person guided and focused on completing the goal at hand. Motivation is effective in sport because it urges sports competitors to work to their maximum effort therefore producing more effectively aaccurate results. There are two types of motivation they are intrinsic and extrinsic.
Motivation
Intrinsic motivation!
Intrinsic motivation is a specific type of motivation that is driven from the sports competitor themselves. It is not produced because of a reward that could be won its made because the individual takes pleasure in competing in that sport or activity and is willing to partake in the activity just for pleasure and not reward. This is effective within sport because it focuses the athlete to compete and because they atre playing just for their own pleasure they will not have to worry about winning any prizes because they get satisfaction from just taking part.
An example of intrinsic motivation used in sport would be Roger Federer because although he has won many titles he claims he plays f=because he loves tennis.
Personality is the combination of charachteristics and qualities that band togeather to create a persons individual charachter. There are three personality types that could define a persons charachter they are:
The trait (Eysneck) theory
Interactionist theory
Social learning theory

These three personality types can be used to define any person wheather they are sports competitors or normal non competative people.
Personality
The trait (Eysenck) theory
Eysneck's thory on personality is that you are classed in one of four categories of personality these are introvert,extrovert, neurotic and stable. Introvert people are mostly shy, quiet people who are not outgoing an prefer to listen to what others say rather than speak up themselves. Extrovert people are mostly outgoing, loud, very social ans some can be unpredictable at times. Neurotic people are in a constant state of paranoia they tend to be almost always angry, anxious and they tend to have mood swings. Stable people are very calm and they tend to be very reliable people and it also would take a lot to make them angry.

Eysencks personality theory would effect sports competitors because they would tend to choose a sport based on their personality trait for example someone who is outgoing would most likely play a team sport like football or rugby and a person who was an introvert would most likely pick an individual sport like tennis or badminton etc.

An example of a person who has an neurotic/outgoing personality is Mario Ballotelli.
Interactionist
Theory
An interactionist personality based person is a person that has a personality based on their own life experiences. For example if they were raised in a good household they would react to different people and things in the way they had been taught by parents and superiors in a good way but if the person had suffered tragedies in younger life and had been bullies when they were young they may not be as open as the person whos younger life was not as rough as the others.

This type of personality could effect sport competitors because when engaging in a team sport if the payer had a bad childhood experiences such as being bullied by otherrs the athlete may not want to communicate with each of the other team mates for fear of being bullied by them like in his childhood. And as a result of this the athlete may get kicked from the team due to not using other players to his advantage and not being a team player this would surely downsize his confidence which would lead to him not playing and rruining any skill that he may have had in that sport.
Social Learning Theory!
The social learning theory is based on the theory of humans being active imformation processors. This measn that we act and behave based on the things and people who are around us for example if an individual had friends who were loud. outgoing and very soicial he or she would also try to be loud, outgoing and social so as to be able to have something common with that person and so than they can fit in with this group.

The social learning theory can affect the personalities of sports competitors because if a young sports player has a favourite football player for e.g. Christiano Ronaldo he or she would see him in all his glory nd would observe the way he acts confident and alert and would then try to copy him because they would want to be just as successfulas he is in whatever sport or physical activity/ competition that they were partaking in.
Stress!!
Stress is a mental state of mental or emtional sterain or tension resulting from demanding activities carried out in daily life these could be work related or home related. There are two types of stress that can effect people there is Eustress which is positive stress and Distress which is the negative kind of stress that occurs to most people.
Eustress!!
Distress!!
Eustress and Distress
Eustress is a form of positive stress that people and sports athletes feel when they've overcome a challenge which gives them a feeling of fullfillment. Some athletes even look for stressfull situations so than they can push themselves to the limit. This can effect sports competitors because during gameplay if they're overcome by this during game play they will be able to go to their maximum and give everything they have which would improve their performance

Distress is the negative form of stress which everybody has experienced. Its an extreme form of anxiety, nervousness, apprehension or worry as a result of perceived inability to meet demands. This is a very common facypr in some athletes becauseas they train some athletes begin to worry about their events and they picture themselves failing at their sport which involuntarily leads them to have a decreased performance when the time comes to perform in their spot this would decrease their confidence and motivation which would then lead to failure.
Arousal and Anxiety!!
Arousal and anxiety in sport is when a sports individual gets highetened senses as a result of the tension levels in the sport that they are taking part in. When arousal levels and anxiety levels increase the sports competitor experiences specific changes in his or her body systems such as heightened senses, increased heart rate and blood flow and they often experience the common butterfly sensation in their stomach area. Also depending on what kind of sports athlete he or she is they may also experience either eustress which is a positive stress feeling which makes the competitor play or perform to their maximum level or they could suffer from distress which would result in the competitor worrying and thinking negatively which could effeect their performance.


Arousal and anxiety could effect sports performers when they are about to take part in their sport because it could increase there drive and make them play or perform better than they usually do which could lead there team to win.
But it could also be a disadvantage because the sports performer could perform at a higher level with low arousal and anxiety levels so if he or she exoeriences heightened arousal and anxiety levels it could negatively effect their performance in sport leading them to underpeform and ose in their sport.
Ways to manage stress!!
Stress is one of the main emotions that causes depression to many people and sports athletes as a result of this many people resort to drugs, alcahol and anti-depressants to get rid of stress. As a result of these techniques the people and sports competitors harm there bodies with the constant use of these anti-depressants and overdose of many of them could lead to death.
There are many ways to manage stress without having to resort to illegal substances these techniques can be minor activites such as squeezing a stress ball to much larger programmes such as taking up a gentle sport or activity such as yoga and or tai chi.

Sports competitors are especially succeptible to stress due to the fact that they live very full and hard demanding lifestyles. Sports competitors mostly handle stress by getting massage from massage therapists this is because in their sport there are many opportunities to get injured and when injury does occur they are admitted to physical therapy and massage so as to reallign the injury.
Massage also physically stimulates the muscles in the body when applied correectly and is one of the best ways to remove physical tension.
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