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Stylistics Week 3: Grammar
Transcript of Stylistics Week 3: Grammar
Analyse the Jorie Graham poem 'Prayer' answering the following question:
How is punctuation used in the poem and to what effect?
For next seminar
What role does punctuation play in the first poem? How do you know how to read the poem and/or should the poem even be read?
What grammatical 'errors' are in the second poem? What effect to they have on the reading of the poem?
How do the grammatical features of the poem relate to the semantic and pragmatic meanings of words and the poem as a whole?
there are so many tictoc
clocks everywhere telling people
what toctic time it is for
tictic instance five toc minutes toc
past six tic
Spring is not regulated and does
not get out of order nor do
its hands a little jerking move
over numbers slowly
we do not
wind it up it has no weights
springs wheels inside of
its slender self no indeed dear
nothing of the kind.
(So,when kiss Spring comes
we'll kiss each kiss other on kiss the kiss
lips because tic clocks toc don't make
a toctic difference
to kisskiss you and to
by E. E. Cummings
by E. E. Cummings
a)s w(e loo)k
Crystal (1987) lists six types of grammar:
7 Ways of Looking at Grammar
grammar as rules
grammar as structures
grammar as mathematics
grammar as algorithms
grammar as texture
grammar as collocation
grammar as an emergent phenomenon
What is grammar?
In what ways can grammar be 'good' or 'bad'?
Do grammar 'rules' apply in literature (poetry, short stories, novels)? In what ways do they apply, and in what ways can they be exploited?