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Transcript of ammonia reforming
REFORMER CONVECTION SECTION RADIATION SECTION HYDROTREATER SECONDARY
REFORMER Abubakar Sohail I.C.E.T University of The Punjab DH Fertilizers knockout drum Development in
Ammonia Technology 1913 2000 1970 1960 First commercial production
1913 in Germany
plant size was 25 to 30 tpd
cost of production was very high. use of centrifugal compressors
made possible large single train
ammonia plants of 1000
or even 1500 tpd Development of special alloys
reduced the size and weight
of equipment technologyPresent level is
around 7.0 Gcal/tonne of Ammonia
and capacity increased to
2000 TPD. IDEAS &
INNOVTIONS availability of feed stock innovations in existing plants reduction in specific energy -Coal bed Methane
-Coal Gasification : Above ground & Underground
-Gas Hydrates A gas similar to natural gas with
90% methane which is trapped
inside Coal Bed eco-friendly source app cost 5.5US$/MMBTU Underground Coal gasification (UCG) is in Underground in-situ gasification of coal in the steam.
It is achieved by injecting oxidants, gasifying the
coal and bringing the product gas to the surface through boreholes drilled from surface. app cost 2.5US$/MMBTU Gas hydrates, generally found in
deep sea at a water depth of
650 to 750 meter, are basically
methane molecules trapped in ice . Introduction of Pre-reformer
High efficiency turbines for all critical drives
High efficiency catalyst
Accelerated start up techniques
Introduction of Distributed Control System (DCS) -Advanced Instrumentation, Computation and Control
-Modernisation of Primary Reformer either as a auto thermal reactor or as heat exchanger by using heat of secondary reformer which will eliminate CO2 emission caused by fuel firing..
-New and advanced catalyst in low pressure converter
-Flame less oxidation (FLOX) type burners with lower NOx emission.
-Special Oxide Dispersion Stabilized (ODS) alloys with higher creep resistance as Primary Reformer Tube material.
-Fuel cells as a source of electrical energy replacing the captive power plant of Ammonia/Urea complex. DESULFURIZER 1102-J ANY ??? naptha process gas 90F to 140F
560psig to 620 psig 228F 670F 560F ------ shell side ----- tube side 1139-C 101-D 650F
cobalt molybedenum CoMo
0.03moles of H2/moles of gas 102-DA & 102-DB 750 F
charge : ZnO
max S at outlet = 0.5 ppm 101-B 103-D RSH +H2 RH + H2S R2S + 2H2 2RH + H2S ZnO + H2S ZnS + H2O CH4 + H2O CO + 3H2
CO + H2O CO2 + H2 CH4 + 2 H2O < =========== > CO2 + 4H2 1450F
Ni based catalyst endothermic 1950F
Ni baseed catalyst 2H2 + O2 2H2O (Exothermic)
CH4+2H2O CO2+4H2 (Endothermic) combustion zone