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How is Krokodil Made?

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olivia mancini

on 19 November 2014

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Transcript of How is Krokodil Made?

How is Krokodil Manufactured?
Two Step Synthetic Process
Current Research:
Little scientific research regarding the chemical components or toxins of Krokodil
Desomorphine:
The desomorphine composition of Krokodil can range from almost 0% up to 75% depending on how it was made and processed
Step One:
Removal of codeine from pharmaceutical tablets
5-10 tablets made up of codeine are boiled with products listed above
This process can be repeated numerous times, but users typically move on to the next step
Products Needed:
Statements made are mainly theoretical
Easy and quick procedure
Can be done at home or on the street
Requires little laboratory equipment
Chemicals are inexpensive and easily attainable
Step Two:
Decrease of the extracted products through a transitional reaction to desocodeine, which is then demethylated into desomorphine
This procedure can take up to 45 minutes and the finished result often consists of toxic by-products due to lousy synthesis
Chemical composition most likely varies between users
What is Krokodil?
Krokodil
=
Homemade Desomorphine
Desomorphine
derivative of morphine
USA, 1932
internationally prohibited
Krokodil
A Scientific Look at Russia's Dangerous Creation
Lana Abdulrahman
Kayla Gingrich
Olivia Mancini
Katie Meagher
Bad Reality
enhanced dependency
8-10x more potent than morphine
short half-life = more applications
Good Intentions
provide alternative to morphine
reduce tolerance and dependency properties
reduce side-effects (nausea, etc)
Russia, 2003
Kazakhstan, Georgia, Germany, Czech Republic, France, Sweden, Belgium, Norway
USA, 2013
Canada?
substitute for heroin
injection or oral
Personal Experience of
Krokodil User

Pharmacology of Desomorphine
Desomorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid, closely related in chemical structure to morphine

Opioid→ a man-made chemical similar to opiates regarding pharmacological effects

Opioids cross the BB barrier and bind to specialized proteins - mu receptors in the CNS

Binding= Gaba = Increase in Dopamine
Opioids activate mesolimbic system→ Ventral Tegmental Area→releases dopamine

Dopamine = feelings of pleasure = environmental conditioned associations = triggers

Opioid receptors begin to slow or stop signals

Codeine
Diluting agent (paint thinner)
Lighter fuel (gasoline)
Hydrochloric acid
Iodine
Red phosphorous
Opioids Create an Analgesic (Painkiller) Effect
Perception of pain decreases
Reaction to pain decreases
Pain tolerance increases

Side Effects of Desomorphine
Sedation
respiratory depression
constipation
strong sense of euphoria

Effects
10 x more effective than an analgesic
15 x more effective as a general depressant

Euphoric effects →seconds →period of depression → 2-3 hours.

Red Phosphorous = Poisoning
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) = Eats away the soft tissue
Bacteria + Open Wounds = Rotten flesh

Harmful Effects
Quick to physically damage the body
Injection leads to bursting blood vessels and the skin dying and rotting
Gangrene, amputation and eventually death
Life expectancy= 2-3 years
Sharing needles resulting in HIV/AIDS, Hep C
Drug half-life is short resulting in more drug use and more rapid harmful effects
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