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Note Taking for Elementary and High School Students
Transcript of Note Taking for Elementary and High School Students
High School Students Problems and Solutions Elementary
Cycles Studies show that almost 75% of
university students have trouble
studying for exams. Secondary
Cycles The Problem Weak strategies include poor note taking, organizing ideas linearly, learning in a piecemeal fashion, and employing redundant
strategies like re-reading notes. For example, Mortimore and Crozier (2006) found that approximately 20% of students reported note-taking as an area of difficulty and note-taking was also reported as one of the top three areas of difficulty for students as they transitioned from high school to college. Studies show that students' poor note-taking skills often result in the typical student recording less than 40% of important lecture points A toolkit to help students learn these skills early may avoid
problems later. Trash-n-Treasure A researcher must dig to find words that help answer the questions (treasure words). He or she must "toss aside" unnecessary sentences, phrases, and words (trash words). 1. Show a prepared question, including the underlined keywords and list of related words. (See example)
2. Scan the article until the appropriate heading is located.
3. Place a slash at the end of the first sentence and read it. Ask "Does this sentence answer the question?"
4. If the answer is no, tell the students that that sentence is "trash" to them. Go on to the next sentence, placing a slash at the end.
5. If the answer is yes, underline the first phrase and ask if that phrase answers the question. If the answer is no, underline the next phrase and repeat the question.
6. If the answer is yes, read that phrase word by-word, asking which words are needed to answer the question these are treasure words. Circle those words, then write them in the appropriate place on the overhead data chart (see sample) or whichever organizer the students are using. Those that do not answer the question are trash words. Continue phrase by phrase and word by word until coming to the end of the sentence. Count the words in the sentence and then count the treasure words. Students are very impressed when you say, "The sentence has 17 words and I only needed to write four of them. I don't know about you, but I would rather write four than 17!" ABC LOU • A abbreviations
• B bullets
• C caveman language (Rankin) or Tarzan talk
• L lists
• O one word for several
• U use of own words All ways that help students
write in their own words to
avoid plagiarism. • ␣Why abbreviations? Abbreviations are “natural” notes—the word “note” actually means to shorten.
• ␣Why bullets? Bullets separate notes for ease of understanding and organization—just take out the bullets and see how much harder it is to comprehend the notes.
• Why caveman language reduces the notes to the most important information. Caveman language or Tarzan talk is a novel way for students to remember and refer to the actual skill of paraphrasing.
• ␣Why lists? Lists are efficient notes—a quick way to paraphrase. ␣Why one word for several? More complex words (synonyms) help put phrases into notes, i.e., “The table was held up by four legs” be- comes “legs support table.” This is a higher-level note taking skill and can be developed gradually with repeated modeling and guided practice.
• ␣Why use student’s own words? This element of good note taking opens the door for discussion of the ethical practice of using one’s own words. This element moves students away from copying and makes note taking a stimulating thinking activity. Student Input Vanneman S. "It's in the Bag" A Focus on Strategies. School Library Media Activities Monthly [serial online]. September 2005;22(1):26-28. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA Bullets and Keywords Identifying keywords and creating a list with bullets is the first skill introduced. Note taking is closely associated and is recognized as an extension of a simple bulleted list. associated and is recognized as an extension of a simple bulleted list.
•Classroom teachers introduce the identifying keywords and bulleting, and note taking skills in the classroom.
•practice strategies in short lessons with real-life applications.
•To complete the nonfiction unit projects over an extended period during the school year, lessons in topic sentence creation, paragraph writing, and resource citation will follow, both in the classroom and in the school library. Moore, Joanne M. "Keywords, Bullets, And Note Taking With Grades 2 And 3." School Library Monthly 27.4 (2011): 14-15. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Sept. 2012. Vanneman, Susan. "Note Taking As Easy As... ABC LOU." School Library Monthly 27.4 (2011): 23-25. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Sept. 2012. Define task through guiding questions on what might be interesting Play red-light green light for good guiding questions Brainstorm strategies
skimming and scanning for keywords
looking for bold, italic and underlined words
using table of contents, index and glossary Students recorded these strategies in their research folder Elementary
Solutions Copy •Copy from the board or transparency. Look for keywords Add •Add details. •Listen and look for details and add them to your notes. Write them one inchfrom the margin with a dash (-) in front of the detail. Listen •Listen to the question that the teacher asks and that students ask and write it down if it helps your understanding. Put a “Q” in front of the question to signal that it is a question. Indent this, just like the details, under the main idea. Listen •Listen to the answer to the question and write it down. Put an “A” in frontof the answer to signal that it is an answer. Indent this just like the details,under the main idea. These last two steps are to be done on the student's own time. Utilize •Utilize the text •At home, utilize your textbook to help you review and understand the information Put the information in your own words and write these statements in your notes.
•Write your statements under the main idea on the six lines that you skipped in #6.
•Write the page number where you found the information in the book in the margin so you can go back later if needed. Ask • Ask yourself if you have a date and topic. • Ask yourself, “Do my notes have a date and topic?” To get topic, skim notes for central idea repeated several times or recall what the teacher said this lesson was about that are in the text. Name • Name the main ideas and details and highlight/underline them.
• Find the details that support these main ideas in your notes. Observe • Observe ideas also in text. Review notes again to find the ideas that are also in the text. Use text headings, boldface terms, summaries, etc., to find ideas that coordinate with the lecture. Try • Try margin noting and use the SAND strategy to organize ideas:
␣ S t a r important ideas;
Arrange arrows to connect ideas. ␣
Number key points in order ␣
Devise abbreviations and write them next to items Examine • Examine for omissions or unclear ideas • To fix up missing or
unclear information in notes, use the text or ask a teacher or fellow student for clarification. Summarize • Summarize key points and the gist of the lecture in a
sentence or two at the bottom of your notes. ANOTES CALLUP & ANOTES CALLUP In 2001 Mayer extended the SOI model to include multimedia learning. SOI Selecting-Choose what is important and not important and adding selected information to working memory Organizing the selected information into a coherent structure Integrating or relating the knowledge constructed in short-term memory with knowledge from long-term memory.
In 2001 Mayer extended the SOI model to include
multimedia learning. The resulting cognitive
theory of multimedia learning (CTML) includes
inputs for words and pictures as well as
the original selecting, organizing and
integrating process Clustering Concept mapping Cornell system Idea mapping Instant replays Ishikawa diagram Knowledge maps Learning mapsMind mappingModel maps Pyramid principle Semantic networks SmartWisdom • Recorded in real-time and graphically represented in an organised, semi-hierarchical format
The blank SmartWisdom notebook sheets
are used in a landscape orientation and feature
four concentric circles in the middle of the page. • These circles guide the note-taking process
by providing a structured border to the
first few levels of the recorded information. • The SmartWisdom technique uses single words
with capitalised letters as base units of the notes
instead of full sentences. Nonlinear •One study ..."assessed the underlying cognitive mechanisms behind effective note-taking and knowledge representation. We presented the advantages and the drawbacks of a non-linear note-taking learning strategy, which seemed to overall increase academic performance through deeper understanding and highly integrated knowledge management. Participants with such learning strategy represented information in a semantically
more connected and meaningful way than their peers with traditional, linear note-taking strategy."
(Makany and Dror) SOAR Selection - students who employ effective strategies select and record complete notes Organization- students who employ effective strategies construct graphic organizers such as hierarchies, sequences, and matrices that showcase relationships among the noted ideas Association-Students who employ effective strategies build associations that reveal important relationships among ideas. Returning to the planet matrix, the following associations are
evident at a glance...if you could see them:
As planets move further from the sun, revolution time increases.
As planets move further from the sun, orbital speed decreases.
Associations can also be external and show relationships between presented facts and
prior knowledge. Regulation- students who employ effective strategies monitor their understanding
through self-testing. Here are some practice questions students
might generate prior to a test over the planet material:
How far is Earth from the sun?
What planet is the largest? Technology &
More Information Noteworthy
(Many apps are
free) Please feel
free to ask
bibliography to this prezi for more tech ideas for note taking. Thanks