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elizabeth jones

on 17 September 2013

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Transcript of biotechnology

An introduction into the business of biotechnology Welcome to the World of Biotechnology The process varies slightly between each species, particularly between plants and animals, however some aspects are the same
Changes are made to the organism’s DNA by inserting a useful gene into the egg cell
This changed egg is then implanted into a mother and the baby born hopefully has the desired trait How GMO are made What Does the Process of Bacterial Transformation Look Like? Paternity/maternity tests
To determine if a suspect was at a crime scene
To identify a murder victim
To identify a soldier killed in the line of duty
To determine identity What can DNA Fingerprints be used for? Identifying the pattern of certain sequences in parts of a person’s DNA to determine if two samples come from the same person, related persons or two, non-related individuals
Only parts of the DNA sequence are used because the whole genome is too long to sequence repeatedly
Everyone has a unique sequence of DNA (even identical twins, although their genomes would be very close to identical)
In order to be an effective tool, we need to get DNA from many people to determine how often certain patterns show up in the population DNA Fingerprinting To create identical cells for research purposes
To maintain a genetically desirable species of plant or animal
To create a missing organ or tissue for treatment of human diseases
To save endangered or extinct species Why Clone? DNA is extracted from an adult cell
An egg for this same species has it’s DNA removed
The empty egg is filled with the adult DNA
The egg is implanted into a surrogate mother
The baby born from this egg is genetically identical to the adult from which it was cloned
But, it will not share any characteristics that aren’t genetic
It will not be the same age as the animal it was cloned from (it’ll be a baby) How Cloning Works Creating a genetically identical copy of something (ex. a DNA strand, a cell, an organ or an entire organism)
Single cells and DNA are fairly easy to clone and so this has been done for a comparatively long amount of time
Cloning entire organisms becomes increasingly more difficult the more complex the organism is (ex. Humans are harder to clone than worms) and so it is very recent and for some species has not been perfected yet Cloning We are at the cusp of an exciting time in the world of biology
We are capable to manipulating living cells in ways that would have been unimaginable even 20 years ago
With this new technology comes many new jobs and benefits to mankind
With this new technology comes the need to think through the ethical issues that arise and to wisely weigh the benefits against the drawbacks to make informed decisions as to what research should be encourage and what should not Conclusion Despite all the exciting things that biotechnology can do or will do in the near future, there are things to consider:
Would it be ethical to clone a human? Why or why not?
Should your insurance company be allowed to have access to your DNA profile if it detected some disease?
How can the bacteria in bioreactors be disposed of once they are no longer useful?
What happens to the natural balance when GMO are sent out to compete with natural plants in the environment? The Ethics of Biotechnology Livestock or produce that has received new genes to make the product healthier, resistant to pest or more nutritious
The process is similar to that used to create genetically-modified bacteria, but the genes are being inserted into multi-celled organism instead Genetically-Modified Foods Biodiesel fuel
Chemicals to block an HIV infection
Human insulin for diabetics
Plastics Some Products Now Synthesized by Bacteria A piece of DNA containing the gene for the desired product is cut with restriction enzymes
A plasmid (circular bacterial DNA) is cut with the same restriction enzyme
The piece and the plasmid are ligated (fused together)
The plasmid is transformed into the bacteria
The plasmid either stays in whole or the gene crosses over into the bacteria’s DNA How are Genetically-Modified Bacteria Created? Inserting new genes into a bacteria to trick it into making a product for us
Although each bacteria usually doesn’t make much product, millions of bacteria can be grown in bioreactors at the same time, and the product harvested from all of them at once Genetically-Modified Bacteria What Does a DNA Fingerprint Look Like? The DNA is isolated from a cell sample and many copies are made with a process called PCR
The DNA is cut into pieces using restriction enzymes (they cut only at specific sequences)
The DNA is run on a gel electrophoresis to separate the pieces (separated based on size)
Probes are used to find certain DNA sequences (usually VNTR sequences)
Comparisons of these pieces of DNA are made to determine identity or relationships How DNA Fingerprinting Works Today, biotechnology is used in three main ways:
Directly using cells
Placing yeast into a bioreactor to ferment grapes
Using the proteins/enzymes made by cells
Isolating antibiotics from bacteria for use in human medicine
Using the genetic material inside of cell
DNA fingerprinting The Biotechnology Toolbox Although it seems like a new thing, biotechnology has actually been around a while
Domesticated plants and animals are the result of selective breeding (have you ever seen a wild corn plant, not something you’d want to eat)
Using yeast to make bread rise
Using bacteria or yeast to ferment grapes into wine Origins of Biotechnology Let’s break it down:
Bio - alive or living
Technology - the application of science to achieve industrial or commercial objectives
So basically, we’re talking about using living materials for a commercial or industrial purpose
Taking living cells and putting them to work for us!!! What is Biotechnology? To give plants resistance to certain pests without the use of pesticides
To make plants drought resistant
To make cows that produce more milk
To make vegetables that can undergo long transport without over-ripening
To make chickens that contain extra vitamins that may be missing from our diets Why make GMOs? Some Products of Cloning Cloning
DNA fingerprinting
Genetically modified bacteria to synthesize products
Genetically modified foods Just Some of the Latest Advances in the World of Biotechnology Biotechnology aspects all aspects of your everyday life, including: agriculture and food safety, healthcare, law enforcement and environmental issues
Although there are many great career paths involving biotechnology that you may consider, possibly even more importantly, you will soon be voters
You’ll make decisions on the ethics involving legalizing certain types of research
You might be on a jury where biotechnology plays a key part in the evidence presented So Why Should I Care? A Definition That is a Little More Fun… Some Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) http://www.ncbiotech.org/
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