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Transcript of Unit 7
1. Cells contain a nucleus
2. Make their own food
3. Cells contain a cell wall
5. Can not move from place to place
& club mosses
mosses & liverworts
Pine trees & Evergreens
NOT produce seeds
Types of Plants
1. Nonvascular Plants
Do NOT have conducting tissue (pipes) to transport water and nutrients.
These plants are small and use diffusion and osmosis to move materials.
Examples: mosses and liverworts
2. Vascular Plants
Contain conducting tissue (pipes) to deliver needed materials throughout the plant.
Vascular plants can be any size
Types of Vascular Plants
1. Plants without seeds.
Help form soil and prevent erosion
sporophyte - produce spores
Examples: ferns, horsetails and club mosses
2. Plants with seeds.
gametophyte - produce sex cells
Types of Seed Plants
Non-flowering or fruit bearing plants
Produce cones instead of flowers and fruits.
Examples: Conifers and evergreens
Use flowers (attract animals) and fruits (protect seeds) for reproduction.
Flowering plants provide food for animals.
Cotyledon - a seed leaf. Provides food for the embryo before it can make its own food.
Types of Angiosperms
Contains 1 seed leaf (cotyledon)
Flower parts in threes
Leaves with parallel veins
Vascular tissue scattered
Examples: grasses, onions, lillies, palms
Contains 2 seed leaves (cotyledons)
Flower parts in fours or fives
Leaves with branching veins
Vascular tissue in a ring
Examples: roses, cactuses, sunflowers, peanuts
Differences between monocots and dicots
Angiosperms are made up of:
Supply plant with water and minerals that are absorbed from the soil
Support and anchor plant
Store food made during photosynthesis
1. Tap Root -
One main root growing down with
smaller roots coming off.
2. Fibrous Root -
Several roots that are the same size.
Support plant body
Some stems can store materials.
Example: cactus stores water
Transport materials between roots and leaves
***Xylem - carries water and minerals upward from the roots
***Phloem - carries food downward to roots for storage and to other parts of the plant
Soft, flexible plant
Rigid stems made of wood and bark
Capture sunlight to make food
Control movement of gases in plant.
Parts of the Leaf:
Cuticle - waxy covering that protects against water loss
Chloroplasts - contain chlorophyll to capture sunlight
Veins - Move water, food and nutrients through xylem and phloem
Stomata - openings under the leaf to let in carbon dioxide and give off water and oxygen.
Guard cells - open and close the stomata
Used for sexual reproduction
Parts of the Flower
Sepal - protects immature flower when it is a bud
Petals - attract insects and animals
Stamen - male reproductive parts
Anther - produces pollen grains
Filament - thin stalk, that anther sits on
Pistil - female reproductive parts
Stigma - collects pollen
Style- pollen travels down to reach egg
Ovary - develops into the fruit
Ovule - inside the ovary; contains the egg.
Develops into a seed after fertilization.
Pollination & Fertilization
1. What type of reproduction occurs in flowering plants?
- egg and sperm are needed
- offspring look different than parents
2. What is pollination?
Pollination occurs when pollen grains are transported from anthers to stigmas.
Self-pollination: egg and sperm from the same plant
Cross-pollination: egg and sperm from different plants
3. What has to happen in order
for fertilization to occur?
The sperm inside the pollen must get from stigma to ovary.
A pollen tube forms from stigma to ovary.
Flower Dissection Lab Directions
Pull off the petals gently. Count the number of petals.
Remove the stamens. Draw and label the parts. Be careful not to remove the stigma and style.
Draw and label the female parts. Remove the stigma and style.
With your fingernail open up the ovary and draw what you see inside.
4. What is fertilization?
Fertilization occurs when the sperm
from the pollen grain fuses (joins)
with the egg inside the ovule.
5. What takes place after fertilization?
The ovule develops into a seed.
The ovary develops into a fruit.
6. What are dormant seeds?
- They are seeds that are inactive (not growing or developing).
7. What does a seed need to grow?
3. proper temperature
8. What is germination?
- Germination is the sprouting of a seed.
Asexual Reproduction in Plants
A root or stem can become a new plant
cuttings: using part of stem or root
runners: stems that run along the ground and buds grow off it.
plantlets: tiny plants grow on leaves
Growth in response to a stimulus
phototropism: response to light
gravitropism: response to gravity (geotropism)
hydrotropism: response to water
thigmotropism: response to touch
The process by which plants make food using sunlight.
1. What is needed for photosynthesis?
- sunlight: chloroplasts in leaves
- carbon dioxide: stomata in leaves
- water: absorbed by roots
2. What does chlorophyll do?
- chlorophyll absorbs sunlight in the leaves
3. What is the equation for photosynthesis?
sunlight + carbon dioxide + water ----> sugar + oxygen
Sunlight + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O ----> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Excess sugar travels down phloem to be stored in other areas of the plant.
Oxygen leaves the plant through the stomata of the leaves
Converts the energy stored in food into a form of energy the plant can use.
glucose + oxygen ----->carbon dioxide + water + energy
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -----> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
This process occurs in the mitochondria of both plant and animal cells.
Water loss from leaves through stomata.
Parts in 4's & 5’s
In a ring
Parts in 3’s