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Cross & Fhagen-Smith's

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Laura Maxwell

on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of Cross & Fhagen-Smith's


Nigrescence Theory = The Process of becoming Black


#1 Pre-Encounter
Beliefs and values are of dominant culture: "White is Right, Black is Wrong"
Internalization of negative black stereotypes
Seek acceptance from Whites and distance themselves from other Blacks
#2 Encounter
Event triggers acknowledging impact of racism in one's life
May conclude that many White's will not view them as equal and focuses on their identity as a member of a group targeted by racism
#3 Immersion/Emersion
Desire to display visible symbols of one's racial identity
Avoidance of White symbols
Explore aspects of own culture/history
#4 Internalization
Secure sense of racial identity
Ability to establish meaningful relationships with non-Black peers
Ready to build coalitions with members of other oppressed groups
Cross & Fhagen-Smith's
Model of Black Identity Development

Black Racial Identity Model - 5 Stages
#5 Internalization-Commitment
Secure sense of racial identity
Ability to establish meaningful relationships with non-Black peers
Ready to build coalitions with members of other oppressed groups
Interview
with
Dr. Steve Brown
Director
ETSU Counseling Center
3 Central Concepts
1) Personal Identity (PI)- traits and characteristics that comprise an individual's personality


2) Reference Group Orientation (RGO)-how a person sees the world, their values and the lens through which their philosophical and political views are filtered


3) Race Salience- importance or significance of race in a person's approach to life
A. Low race salience
B. High race salience
C. Internalized racism
Nigrescence Pattern A:
Black identity established through interaction with parents and significant others.
Nigrescence Pattern B:
Not socialized toward Blackness; have not formed healthy Black identity; usually experience conversion during adulthood
Patterns
Nigrescence Pattern C:
Occurs whether person experienced Nigrescence pattern A or B; involves
Nigrescence Recycling
, expanding or modifying
Black identity throughout
adulthood.
References

Cokley, K. (2002). Testing cross's revised racial identity model: An examination of the relationship betweeen racial identity and internalized racialism. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(4), 476-483.

Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., Guido, F.M., Patton, L.D., Renn, K.S. (2010). Student development in college: theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

Vandiver, B. J., Fhagen-Smith, P.E., Cokley, K.O., Cross, W.E. (2001). Cross’s nigrescence model: From theory to scale to theory. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29 (3). ProQuest Psychology Journal. pp 174.

Worrell, F.C., Cross, W.E., Vandiver, B.J. (2001). Nigrescence theory: Current status and challenges for the future. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29 (3). ProQuest Psychology Journal. pp 201.
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