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Down Syndrome

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by

Sonia Fernandez

on 16 May 2015

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Transcript of Down Syndrome

Hyper-flexibility of joints
Extremities
Head & Neck
Brachycephaly
Helmets improve the symmetry of a baby's skull. These custom made devices apply pressure to bulging parts of the skull and relieve pressure from other parts, allowing growth in the flatter areas.
Parental Involvement
Programs can educate parents about the proper strategies to help their child develop to his/her fullest potential.
Description & Characteristics
Treatment
Educational Implications
Down Syndrome
Brachycephaly
Up-slanting Palpebral Fissures
Epicanthal Folds
Brushfield Spots
flat nasal bridge
Folded or Dysplastic Ears
Open Mouth
Protruding Tongue
Short neck and excessive skin at the nape of the neck
Short broad hands
Short in-turned fifth finger
Traverse Palmer Crease
Space between first and second toe
Physical Therapy
Three different patterns of chromosome can cause Down Syndrome (DS). 95% have three separate copies of chromosome 21.
Sleep Apnea
Occupational Therapy
Speech Therapy
Music Therapy
Art Therapy
Dance Therapy
Causes
According to the National Genetics Education and Development Centre, 1 in 800 live births are Down Syndrome (DS), 60% are spontaneously aborted, 20% are stillborn.
Learning difficulties (IQ usually less than 50%)
40% of DS individuals have congenital heart malformations.
This is when the back of the head becomes flattened, causing the head to widen. To compensate, the front of the skull sometimes bulges out.
The eye opening appears slanted upwards from the inner corner of the eye to the outer corner of the eye.
A skin fold of the upper eyelid covering the inner corner of the eye. It is common in people of Asiatic decent.
Little white spots that are slightly elevated on the surface of the iris arranged in concentric ring around the pupil.
Dedicated to my baby brother
There isn't any treatment available to cure DS. However, those with DS need to be screened regularly for eye problems, hearing loss and thyroid disease. Physical and speech therapy is also needed to improve language skills and teach movement. Surgery may be needed to correct defects and gastrointestinal blockage.
Improving strength, developmental skills, balance and coordination, physical fitness
Develops vocabulary, improves expressive language, teaches visual and auditory attention.
Low muscle tone affects feeding.
In feeding, children gain practice with strengthening and coordinating the muscle that will be used for speech. Feeding therapy can to help strengthen the oral muscles, which in turn can have a positive effect on speech.
These exercises will facilitate speech development and improve the child's speech.
Parent of a child with DS should look into early intervention/infant development programs as soon as possible.
An education assistant should be available for the child at all time, to help them complete hands-on activities, and work such as writing, arts and crafts.

There should be visuals in the classroom indicating schedule, routines, instruction, which may include short, common or familiar terminology, again depending on the level of the child, as some may be more independent than others.
Give immediate feedback

Avoid multi-task assignment

Use positive feedback, praise and rewards for desired behavior

Simplify the more complex tasks

Use structured materials
and preferential seating

Continuous Positive Airways
OT help facilitate the development of motor skills. They work with the child to promote arm and hand movement that lay the foundation for later developing fine motor skills.
Physical Therapy Swimming
Academic Accomodations
Physical Therapy: Boxing
Oral Motor Therapy
Full transcript