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Transcript of Body Systems
By: Ben Perez
The Skeletal System
The Muscular System
There are three different types of muscles : skeletal, smooth, and cardiac, and these are the organs of this system.
The Circulatory System
The main organs are the heart, blood , and blood vessels (veins,arteries,capillaries), but the lungs and brain are a major factor.
The Respiratory System
The organs in the respiratory system are the mouth/nose, lungs, larynx,pharynx,trachea,the bronchial tubes,and the diaphragm.
The bones of a human being have a substance called marrow. The marrow creates red and white blood cells.
Our hands and feet consist of half of the bones in our whole body. Our bones also consist of living cells which can fix themselves if broken.
Cardiac muscles - This type of muscle is only found in the heart. Also, it can stretch like smooth muscle and contract like skeletal. Cardiac is involuntary which means if it were voluntary, we could make our heart stop beating at any time.
Our nose and ears are made out of cartilage not bones. Cartilage is a very firm tissue, but is a lot more flexible than a bone.
The organs that make up this system are bones, ligaments,cartilage,and tendons
The functions are ...
Helping in movement
To store minerals
The Production of red and white blood cells
Chemical energy storage
Muscles connect with the skeleton to help it move. Therefore the skeletal and muscular system interact.
The bones also create blood cells which is in the circulatory system. This shows that the skeletal and circulatory systems interact.
Smooth muscle-This muscle can stretch and maintain tension over extended periods. Smooth muscles are involuntary muscles which means we don't control them. For instance we don't think about digesting the food we eat,.
Skeletal muscles- There are nearly 650 skeletal muscles in the human body. Skeletal muscles are voluntary meaning they do movements we make them do.
The muscular system interacts with the digestive system by moving food.
The skeletal and muscular system work together by the muscles helping in movement (skeletal muscle).
The function of the muscular system is to help to body in movement.
The main function of the human circulatory system is to flow blood,nutrients, oxygen and other gases, and hormones to/from cells
The left side of the heart has oxygenated blood, but the right side has deoxygenated blood.
The heart continues to beat even when it's not inside the body.
Blood cells die every 4 months.
All of the blood vessels are attached to the heart. Veins (blue) return blood to heart.
The average heart pumps 450 gallons of blood every day.
Arteries(red) carry blood away from the heart.
The circulatory system interacts with the skeletal system by the bone marrow producing blood cells which travel through the bloodstream.
The respiratory and circulatory system interact by the air being breathed in and goes into the lungs. Then the air travels into the bloodstream, giving the blood oxygen.
The Digestive System
The organs are the mouth, pharynx,esophagus,stomach,small,intestine,large intestine,the rectum,and the anus. The liver, gall bladder,and pancreas help in digestion.
The digestive system interacts with the skeletal system by teeth chewing the food.
The esophagus is about 25 cm long. Our muscles contract in waves in order to move food. This means food can go to a person's esophagus even if they were standing on their head.
Over 90% of digestion takes place in the small intestine. The acid from the stomach mixes with enzymes,bile,and pancreatic juices.
The function of the digestive system is to break down the food that we eat into energy and nutrients for the cells.
About 1.7 liters of saliva is produced everyday.
The digestive system interacts with the muscular system by muscles moving food to the esophagus.
The main function of the respiratory system is to bring in oxygen to give the blood and to other parts of the body. it also helps in the release of carbon dioxide.
The trachea is most commonly referred to as the windpipe, and it filters the air that we breathe in and branches into the bronchial tubes.
The lungs are the most important part of the respiratory system, because they are responsible for bringing in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide.
The organs that are required for breathing (mouth/nose, lungs, larynx,pharynx,trachea, and the bronchial tubes) are also called the respiratory tract.
The respiratory system interacts with the nervous system by the brain controlling the rate at which we breathe.
The respiratory system interacts with the skeletal system by bones protecting the lungs.
Another interesting fact about the respiratory is that the left lung is slightly larger than the right.
The most common infection that occurs in the respiratory system is the common cold.This illness is caused by 200 different viruses, and the virus inflates the upper part of the respiratory tract.
The Excretory System
The organs in the excretory system are the lungs,skin,kidneys, ureters, bladder,and the urethra.
Kidneys have more than one job in the body.Other than just releasing liquid waste, there is many other tasks to do.These tasks include helping balance minerals,vitamins,proteins,and fat content in the blood. This makes the body complete its tasks easily.
The primary function of the excretory system is to remove non-solid waste out of the body
About 1.5 quarts of urine is released everyday by the human body.Vitamins,minerals,and other liquids that are unneeded are also released.
The human bladder when full, can get the same size as the average human brain.
The skin in the excretory systems purpose is to help the body maintain homeostasis. In order to do this, we sweat.
The excretory system interacts with the circulatory system by the blood passing through one of the kidneys.In this process liquid waste is removed from the blood,filtering the blood.
The excretory system interacts with the endocrine system by it monitoring the production of fluid in the kidneys.It also releases hormones to produce either more or less urine to maintain homeostasis.
The lungs in the human excretory system are responsible for getting rid of carbon dioxide and bringing in oxygen.
The Nervous System
The nervous system interacts with the immune system because the brain has the ability to stimulate defense mechanisms against infection.
The nervous system interacts with the skeletal system because the skull protects the brain from injury and the vertebrae protects the spinal cord.
The organs in the nervous system are the brain,spinal cord,and nerves.
The function of the nervous system is to detect,interpret,and respond to change internally and externally.
The nervous system in divided into 2 parts,the central nervous system (CNS) which consists of the brain and spinal cord.The other part of the nervous system is known as the peripheral nervous system (PNS) which is made up of all the neurons in the body except for the ones in the brain and spinal cord.
Another interesting fact about the nervous system is that the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body.
The speed in which the nervous system transmits messages to the brain is 180 miles per hour.
A nerve cell that sends and receives electrical signals from long distances throughout the human body is called a neuron.There are billions of neurons in our body. In just the brain there are 100 billion.
There are 3 types of neurons afferent,efferent,and inter neurons.
Afferent neurons - Transmit sensory signals to the CNS from receptors in the body.
Efferent - Transmit signals from the CNS to effectors in the body like glands and muscles.
Inter neurons - Form complex networks within the CNS to mix information that was received from afferent neurons,and in order to direct the function of the body through efferent neurons.
The Immune System
The function of the immune system is to fight diseases and pathogens.
The main organs in the immune system include the bone marrow,the spleen,thymus,and the lymph nodes.
The bone marrow is very important because it produces the blood. The blood contains the white blood cells which are the defense mechanisms against infection. Bone marrow also produce T and B cells,macrophages, natural killer cells,leukocytes,and dendritic cells.
T cells mature in the Thymus. Then the spleen filters the blood and captures foreign while the lymph nodes are filtering lymph fluid. These are the major jobs of these organs. Although the immune system has an important factor of preventing us from sickness, it only makes up 15 of the cells in the body.
Once a pathogen is detected the white blood cells go and attack the infected area to prevent us from getting sick. Different white blood cells have different jobs such as fighting certain pathogens.
The skeletal system and the immune system interact by the bone marrow producing all the cells needed in the immune system.
The immune system works with the circulatory system by transportation needs by blood cells, in which cells in the immune system travel through the body and detect infection.
B cells are responsible for producing antibodies and releasing them into the blood. Antibodies attack foreign antigens that are in the bloodstream. T cells contribute to immune defense in 2 different ways. They either direct and regulate immune responses or attack infected cells.