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Autism Spectrum Disorder
Transcript of Autism Spectrum Disorder
1. Communication Characteristics
2. Social Interaction Characteristics
3. Unusual Behavioural Characteristics Difficulties with non-verbal communication
Difficulty comprehending verbal information
Delay in/or lack of expressive language skills
significant differences in speaking for those who do develop language
repetative and idiosyncratic speach patterns
echolalic speach, immediate or delayed literally repetition of the speach of others
difficulty with pragmatics of conversation Theory of mind: people with autism are not able to understand that other people have a perspective that could be different from their own, they may also have difficulty understanding their own and particularily other peoples beliefs, desires, intentions, knowledge and perceptions.
Students with ASD may demonstrate these difficulties in a variety of observable ways. Students with ASD often demonstrate unusual and distinctive behaviours including...
Other behaviours that are not necessarily exclusive to students with ASD but may be observed in the classroom are... Generally the learner with ASD:
has difficulty with analysis and synthesis
learns through ritual routine and repetition
has idiosyncratic perceptions
has a strong visual memory
has auditory processing weakness Sensory Experiences of an Autistic Child
awareness of different sensory experiences is central to understanding behaviours and planning programs for students with autisim Vestibular - movement and balance; the inner ear contains structures that detect movement and changes in posiotion, students with ASD have differences in this orientating system. They may either be fearful of movement and have trouble on stairs or ramps, or they may seek intense movement that upsets the vestibular system (such as twirling) that other students cannot tolerate.
Hyposensitivty - enjoys and needs movement
Intervention strategy - provide opportunities for gross-motor activity
Hypersensitivity - have low muscles tone and aviod movement, may have difficulty with balance
Intervention strategy - provide opportunities for movement ABA - Applied Behavioural Analysis is an effective approach to understanding and changing behaviour and teaching new skkills. ABA can be used as an instructional approach for students of every age; with varying degrees of intensity along a student learning continuum. The focus in an instructional approach that uses ABA is on measuring and tracking behaviours over time, determining the function of the target behaviour and altering the behaviour by providing intervention. The ultimate goal of using ABA methods is the generalization of the learned skills and behaviours to other settings and situations.
Examples of teaching strategies using ABA methods include: prompts, modelling, reinforcement, task anaylsis, forward chaining, backward chaining, descrete trial chaining and shaping. Prompts - cues or assistance to encourage the student to provide the desired response.
The goal is to help the student become as independent as possible in participating and completing tasks. Modelling - shows the student what is expected in a task before completing the task independently. Reinforcements - encouraging a behaviour through the use of reinforcements (stickers, free time, praise, etc), can be used for displaying positive behaviour or for refraining/reducing the occurence of negative behaviour. Task analysis - involves breaking tasks down into smaller teachable steps, goals for each step are established and task performance is taught according to these steps. Forward-chaining - when steps are identified through task anaylsis use forward chaining to focus instruction to teach the step the student has not yet mastered, once the student masters the first step, then focus attention on the next step and continue until all steps are complete (name). Backward-chaining - opposite of forward chaining, you are focusing on the last step that the student has not mastered (removing outdoor clothing). Descrete trial training - like task anaysis it involves analyzing skills and breaking large tasks into subtasks. It consists of 4 steps:
1. Student is given a brief instruction/question that is design to produce a specific response.
2. Student responds.
3. If desired response, given positive reinforcement. If the response is not the desired, it is either ignored or corrected or the student is prompted to provide the desired response.
4. Data are recorded. Shaping - involves the use of reinforcements to change behaviour gradually and systematically. (Little reinforcements along the way). The focus in an instructional approach that uses ABA is on measuring and tracking behaviours over time, determinging the function of the target behaviour, and altering the behaviour by providing intervention.
Examples of teaching strategies using ABA methods inclue: prompts, modelling, reinforcement, task analysis, forward chaining, backward chaining, discrete trial training and shaping. Community Resources http://missinglinks.ca/ http://www.autismontario.com/client/aso/ao.nsf/Hamilton/Hamiltonhome eferences: ONE "When you've seen one child with autism, you've seen
child with autism. ONE Websites:
Inclusion of Exceptional Learners in Canadian Schools: A Practical Handbook for Teachers - N. Hutchinson
Special Education in Ontario Schools 6th Ed. - S. Bennett, D. Dworet & K. Weber
Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education - D. Hallahan, J. Kauffman, L. McIntyre, D. Mykota
Effective Educational Practices for Students with Austim Spectrum Disorders: A Resource Guide - Ministry of Ontario
Case Studies for Inclusive Schools 2nd Ed. - P. Anderson
Special Class for the Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder Handbook - HWDSB Interview with Lindsay