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VSCA Conference

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Holly Sin

on 21 April 2014

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Transcript of VSCA Conference

Kauts, A., & Sharma, N. (2009). Effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. International Journal of Yoga, 2(1), 39-43.

Study consisted of 480 students ages 14-15 identified as high stress or low stress based on the Bisht Battery of Stress Scale (BBSS)
Students in experimental group practiced yoga (asanas, pranayama, and meditation) for an hour every morning for 7 weeks.
An academic performance test was used as a pre/post test for experimental and control groups.
Students who practiced yoga performed better than those in the control group.
Students with low stress performed better than students with high stress.

Academic Benefits

Y0GA l 1
Resources
Attention/Concentration Benefits
Stress & Anxiety Benefits
Video clips thanks to:
http://www.maddiesbooks.com/yogibee/CYP_yb/yogabites2010/home.html



Yoga postures, meditation, and controlled breathing exercises can alleviate stress and increase test performance.
Students who practice yoga perform better on academic achievement tests than students who have no experience with yoga.
Yoga increases concentration and promotes learning when used in the classroom.
Simple yoga techniques can be used anywhere and have the same learning benefits as more complex postures.
Morgan, L. (2011). Harmonious Learning: Yoga in the English Language Classroom. English Language Forum, 49(4), 2-13.

Teacher taught ESL courses for adults, one class using yoga asanas, one using the traditional ESL curriculum
Students in class using yoga were more relaxed and focused
Students in class using yoga had more time to reflect on what they were learning and able to learn material more effectively
Incidental learning of the English language helped improve students’ competence in English and helped students to develop interpersonal skills, self-confidence, and self-awareness

Williamson, L.A. (2012). Yoga in Public Schools. Teaching Tolerance, 42, 27-28.

Study conducted at Cass Street School in Milwaukee (K-8 School)
Students attended 2 classes a week where instructors taught mindful breathing and basic yoga poses, and modeled calm, respective behavior
After first year of program, classroom disruptions, disorderly conducts, and fights among students had decreased by more than 50%
Classroom time was used more efficiently

Techniques Used for Academics
Yoga Breath (Belly Breath)

Pranayama- controlled breathing

Dynamic Asanas
Boat at the Dock (focus)
Dangling Vines (calm)

Static Asanas
Chair Twist (focus)
Hug and Twist (focus)
Mindfulness can lead to greater awareness of feelings associated with stress which can enhance coping abilities.

A mixture of meditation and physical yoga has been found to improve total mood disturbance (psychological distress) as well as tension/anxiety.

Yoga can improve negative affect which helps keep students calm.
White, L. S. (2012). Reducing stress in school-age girls through mindful yoga. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 26(1), 45-56.

155 fourth and fifth grade girls from two public schools randomly assigned to intervention or wait-list control groups.

Intervention group met 1 hour a week for 8 weeks as well as 10 minutes of daily homework.

The intervention group was more likely to report greater appraisal of stress and greater frequency of coping. Greater awareness of stress related feelings can enhance coping abilities.

Noggle, J., Steiner, N. J., Minami, T., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2012). Benefits of yoga for psychosocial well-being in a us high school curriculum: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(3), 193-201.

51 eleventh and twelfth grade students in a PE class were randomized 2:1 yoga:PE-as-usual. A program of physical postures, breathing, relaxation, and meditation was taught 2 to 3 times a week for 10 weeks.

Negative affect improved in yoga students but not in the control. Also, the Profile of Mood States-Short Form Tension-Anxiety subscale improved for the yoga students and not the control.
Sitting meditation

Yoga breathing

Dynamic Asana
Cat/Cow Pose
Self-Massage

Static Asana
Crescent Moon
Rag Doll

Techniques Used for Stress & Anxiety



Calmness & Concentration
Yoga techniques activate the parasympathetic nervous system (the center of “
rest and digest
” stimulation) and relax the sympathetic nervous system (the center of the “
fight or flight
” stimulation)


Peck, H. L., Kehle, T.J., Bray, M.A., & Theodore, L.A. (2005). Yoga as an intervention for children with attention problems. School Psychology Review, 34, 415-424.

Elementary students with attention difficulties were assigned to a small group and practiced yoga for 30 minutes, twice a week, for a period of 3 weeks
Yoga Fitness for Kids videotapes
Behavioral Observation Form: Students’ percentage of time on task during their morning class work
Large effect size (1.51 to 2.72) was found in the percentage of time on task for the experimental group
Improvement in concentration and time on-task

Jensen, P.S., & Kenny, D.T. (2004). The effects of yoga on the attention and behavior of boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Journal of Attention Disorders,7, 205-216.

Yoga as a complementary treatment to ADHD medical intervention
Boys with ADHD diagnosis between the age of 8-13 year old
Significant improvement in:
Stabilizing emotions
Reducing hyperactive/impulsive behaviors
Increasing ability to remain engaged in activities
The number of sessions attended and amount of home practice can affect the effectiveness of a yoga intervention
Students who practiced more at home indicated improvement on their ability to stay focus

Case-Smith, J., & Sines, J.S. (2010). Perceptions of children who participated in a school-based yoga program. Journal of Occupational Therapy , Schools, & Early Intervention, 3, 226-238.

Perceptions of 3rd grade at risk students about their experience in an 8-week yoga program
Weekly 45 minute sessions during the school day in a quiet space. Plus, 15 minute yoga session in the classroom for 4 days of the week.
Components of the program:
Music, yoga poses and exercises, relaxation exercises, and discussion activities
At the focus group, students shared that the program had helped them:
Feeling Calm and focused
Have better self-control
Positive self-concept
Their teachers shared similar insights as well
Hatha
Gentle and meditative
Focuses on postures, breath control, and meditation

Deep breathing

Yoga stretches/postures
Palm tree
Seed to tree

Guided relaxation exercises
Techniques For Attention/Concentration
http://www.americanyogaassociation.org/contents.html
American Yoga Association

www.yoga4classrooms.com
Yoga 4 Classrooms offers research articles, curriculum, and trainings

www.maddiesbooks.com/yogibee/CYP_yb/yogabites2010/home.html
Yoga Bites! provides abundant video demonstrations of practicing yoga poses in classrooms

www.yogajournal.com
Yoga Journal provides information on poses, practice, videos, and more.

www.yokid.org
Yokid: Yoga for children and teens in Washington DC, Maryland, & Virginia

www.dartmouth.edu/~heathed/relax/dowloads.html
Various downloads on deep breathing & guided relaxation exercises, guided imagery/visualization exercises, mindfulness and meditation exercises, progressive muscle relaxation exercises, and soothing instrumental music.

Web Resources

Breathing First (2011). Yoga Bites! Retrieved from: http://www.maddiesbooks.com/yogibee/CYP_yb/yogabites2010/home.html

Kauts, A., & Sharma, N. (2009). Effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. International Journal of Yoga, 2(1), 39-43.

Morgan, L. (2011). Harmonious Learning: Yoga in the English Language Classroom. English Language Forum, 49(4), 2-13. Retrieved from: http://americanenglish.state.gov/resources/english-teaching-forum-2011-volume-49-number-4#child-1118

Nemati A. (2013).The effect of pranayama on test anxiety and test performance. International Journal of Yoga, 6, 55-60. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3573544/

Palgi, I. (2007). Our story of yoga: Participatory learning and action with young children. Youth and Environments, 17 (2), 329-340.

Wichlinski, A. (2008). Yoga for the Educator. Exchange Magazine, 182, 55.

Williamson, L.A. (2012). Yoga in Public Schools. Teaching Tolerance, 42, 27-28.

Academics
Stress & Anxiety
Gard, T., Brach, N., Holzel, B. K., Noggle, J. J., Conboy, L. A., & Lazar, S. W. (2012). Effects of a yoga-based intervention for young adults on quality of life and perceived stress: The potential mediating roles of mindfulness and self-compassion. The Journal of Positive Psychology: Dedicated to further research and promoting good practice, 7(3), 165-175.

Kirkwood, G., Rampes, H., Tuffrey, V., Richardson, J., & Pilkington, K. (2005). Yoga for anxiety: a systematic review of the research evidence. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(12)

Li, A. W., & Goldsmith, C. W. (2012). The Effects of Yoga on Anxiety and Stress. Alternative Medicine Review, 17(1), 21-35

Noggle, J., Steiner, N. J., Minami, T., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2012). Benefits of yoga for psychosocial well-being in a us high school curriculum: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(3), 193-201.

White, L. S. (2012). Reducing stress in school-age girls through mindful yoga. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 26(1), 45-56.

Attention / Concentration
Case-Smith, J.,  & Sines, J.S. (2010). Perceptions of children who participated in a school-based yoga program. Journal of Occupational Therapy , Schools, & Early Intervention, 3, 226-238.

Jensen, P.S., & Kenny, D.T. (2004). The effects of yoga on the attention and behavior of boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Journal of Attention Disorders,7, 205-216. DOI: 10.1177/108705470400700403

Kaley-Isley, L.C., Peterson, J., Fischer, C., & Peterson, E. (2010). Yoga as a complementary therapy for children and adolescents: A guide for clinicians. Psychiatry, 7, 20-32.

Napoli, M., Krech, P.R., & Holley, L.C. (2005). Mindfulness training for elementary school students: The attention academy. Journal of Applied School, 21, 99- 125. DOI: 10.1300/J370v21n01_05

Peck, H. L., Kehle, T.J., Bray, M.A., & Theodore, L.A. (2005). Yoga as an intervention for children with attention problems. School Psychology Review, 34, 415-424.

Yoga Interventions to
Combat Student Stress & Anxiety

Courtney Cornejo
April Massie
Holly Sin
Benefits of Yoga Practice
Enhances self-concept, confidence, and self-esteem

Enhances cognitive process (comprehension and retention)

Improves posture, body awareness, and coordination

Increases attention span and concentration

Promotes self-awareness and self-control

Promotes social and emotional learning

Reduces anxiety and stress

Developmental Considerations in a Yoga Class with Children and Adolescents
(Kaley-Isley, Peterson, Fischer, & Peterson, 2010)
Ancient practice from India

Yoga: “To unite or integrate” in Sanskrit

Goal: To achieve the states of awareness and peacefulness by unifying the body and mind

Elements: physical postures, breathing techniques, and meditation

Yoga techniques have been adopted by Hinduism, Buddhism, and other religions
Branches of Yoga
Contact Us:
Courtney Cornejo cornejocm@vcu.edu
April Massie massiea@vcu.edu
Holly Sin sinh@vcu.edu

Relax! Yoga Interventions to Combat Student Stress & Anxiety
Who This Can Benefit
Students
Classroom
Group
Individual
Faculty
Personal Wellness
Things to consider...
Sometimes the words yoga and meditation are viewed as religious concepts. Consider using other phrases such as:
Stress Management
Relaxation strategies
Stretching
Poses
Breathing Techniques
Brain Break
Some students may feel uncomfortable closing their eyes or posing in certain ways. Always give them an option to do what is comfortable.
Improved concentration and retention

Decreased anxiety

Decreased arguments and fights among students

Increased decision-making skills
Yoga
Bhakti: Yoga of Devotion and Heart

Hatha: Yoga of Postures

Jnana: Yoga of the Mind

Karma: Yoga of Service

Raja: Yoga of Self-Control

Tantra: Yoga of Rituals

Learning-specific benefits of Yoga include..
Studies Show...
Studies show
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Picture Links

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-I2EpxaMfVbc/UN3W1Qk1BEI/AAAAAAAAAVw/zK7OgccrY28/s1600/cat_yoga+copy.jpg
http://www.picgifs.com/clip-art/yoga/clip-art-yoga-348641-691113/
http://www.yogacatz.com/#!MAUDE/zoom/c1ecp/image1ryg
http://gooddaygoldfish.com/
http://www.picgifs.com/clip-art/yoga/clip-art-yoga-576086-691243/
http://www.yogadogz.com/#!ADDIE/zoom/c21kz/image1t6p
http://www.picgifs.com/clip-art/yoga/clip-art-yoga-825925-691185/
http://www.yogababies.com/#!KESTREL/zoom/c12ud/image1qf7
http://blissbabyyogi.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/yoga_cartoon.jpg

Thank you for attending!
Studies show…
Nemati, A. (2013). The effect of pranayama on test anxiety and test performance. International Journal of Yoga, 6(1), 55-60. doi: 10.4103/0973-6131.105947

• A study done in 107 postgraduate students ranging in age from 29 to 43 tested the use of pranayama and its effect on test anxiety. The students were split into an experimental group and control group and used Sarason’s test anxiety scale to measure.

• The participants were separated into the experimental and control groups randomly and there were no significant differences in anxiety between the two groups at the beginning of the term. The experimental group then practiced pranayama throughout the study.

• Results show that only 33% of students in the experimental group experienced high test anxiety while 66.7% in the control group experienced high test anxiety.
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