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Christine Finnegan

on 26 June 2014

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Transcript of WAIS- IV

History of the WAIS- IV
WAIS: 1955

WAIS-R: 1981

WAIS-III: 1997

WAIS-IV: 2008
History of the WAIS- IV

Published in 1955 by David Wechsler

Measures intelligence in adults and older adolescents (16-90)
Overview of an individuals strengths and weaknesses

Measures a number of different mental abilities rather than one
Wechsler was dissatisfied with the Stanford-Binet Test

Compared scores to other test-takers in his/her age group
Average 100. 2/3 scoring between 85-115
Scoring Procedures/ Interpretation
Sum of Scaled Scores

Composite Score

Percentile Rank from Test Age
Test Age= Test Date Year, Month, Day & Birth Year, Month, Day
Found in user manual

Confidence Interval of 90% - 95%
Scoring/Report Options
FSIQ, Index Scores, Subtest Level Scaled Scores
Q-Interactive Web-based Administration and Scoring, Manual Scoring, Scoring Assistant and Report Writer Software

Score Report, Client Report, Interpretive Report
Test Administration
Basic Kit = $1,145.00
Administration & Scoring Manual. Technical Manual, 2 Stimulus Books, 25 Record Forms, 25 Response Booklet #1, 25 Response Booklet #2,Symbol Search Scoring Key, Coding Scoring Key, Cancellation Scoring Templates, 9 Block Design Cubes in a box.

Age Range = 16:0 - 90:11

Time= 60 - 90 minutes for core

Administration = paper & pencil, web

10 Core Subtests
Block Design
Digit Span
Matrix Reasoning
Symbol Search
Visual Puzzles

5 Supplemental Subtests
Letter-Number Sequence
Figure Weights
Picture Completion
Four Major Categories
Verbal Comprehension
Similarities, Vocabulary, Information,

Perceptual Reasoning
Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Visual Puzzles,
Figure Weights, Picture Completion

Working Memory
Digit Span, Arithmetic,
Letter-Number Sequencing

Processing Speed
Symbol Search, Coding,
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition
(Wechsler, 2008)
(Cherry, K., 2014)
(Cherry, K., 2014)
(Cherry, K., 2014)
(Cherry, K., 2014)
(Wechsler, 2008)
Pearson Clinical, 2014
Pearson Clinical, 2014
Canivez, G. L. (2010). Review of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition.
Retrieved from: http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfglc/Adobe%20pdf/Publications-Papers/Canivez%20%282010%29%20Buros%20MMY%20WAIS-IV%20Review.pdf

Cherry, K., (2014). The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: history and use
of the WAIS.
. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/intelligence/a/wechsler-adult-intelligence-scale.htm

Hays, D. G. (2013). Assessment in counseling: A guide to the use of psychological
assessment procedures (5th ed.). Alexandria, VA.: American Counseling Association, Pgs. 172-173.

Pearson, (2014). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- Fourth Edition.
Clinical Psychology
. Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonclinical.com/psychology/products/100000392/wechsler-adult-intelligence-scalefourth-edition-wais-iv.html#tab-training

After revising the WAIS-III and creating the new WAIS-IV there was a removal of Object Assembly and Picture Arrangement has greatly simplified administration and clarified interpretation.

WAIS-IV has removed two subsets of questionable reliability and validity leaving us with only one hands-on constructional subset, Block Design.

Loring and Bauer (2010) opine that the change in composition of the WAIS-IV subtests may result in fewer FSIQ scores of 70 or below in some clinical populations.

This would mean that there would be a decrease in the number of individuals qualifying for special education or disability services using FSIQ criteria.
Pearson, (2014). Wechsler General Ability Index, GAI,
Clinical Psychology
Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonclinical.com/psychology/products/100000392/wechsler-adult-intelligence-scalefourth-edition-wais-iv.html?Pid=015-8980-808#tab-resources

Lichtenberger, E. O. (2013). Essentials of WAIS-IV
assessment . Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.

Ryan, J. J. & Sattler, J. M. (2009). Assessment with the WAIS-
IV. Las Mesa, CA: Jermome M Sattler Publisher.

Norms and Scores
• The standardization sample (N=2,220) was stratified across variables of age, sex, race/ethnicity, education level, and geographic region.

• Subtest scores had M=10 and SD=3 for 13 age groups, to find these numbers the “means, standard deviations, and skewness were examined from first through fourth order polynomial regressions with comparison to theoretical distributions and growth curves that produced percentiles for raw scores” (Canivez, 2010, pg. 685).

• Age group breakdown: 16-17, 18-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, and 85-90.

Norms and Scores Cont.
• Provides a Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), General Ability Index (GAI) and Index Scores for the Four Factors (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed), each score has a M=100 and a SD=15.

• The ten core subsets are used to generate the FSIQ scores

• The GAI is calculated from six subtests

• The FSIQ ranges from 40-160 and represents a 2/3 SD increase in IQ measurement range over the WAIS-III.

(Canivez, 2010)
(Canivez, 2010 & Hays, D. 2013)
GAI and CPI Explained
• GAI is an optional index score and is derived from the core Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning subtests.

• It provides an estimate of general intellectual ability, with reduced emphasis on working memory and processing speed relative to the FSIQ.

• Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) is the counterpart for GAI, derived from the core Working Memory and Processing Speed subtests.

• The CPI represents an individual’s competence at cognitive processing.

(Pearson, 2014)
FSIQ Breakdown Chart
(Pearson, 2014)
• Internal consistency estimates across the 13 age groups yield ranges from .97 to .98 (FSIQ), .87 to .98 (index scores, VCI, PRI, WMI, PSI), and .71 to .96 (subtests) for the standardization sample.

• Short-term test-retest reliabilities for an average of 22 days for four age groups were also strong.

• Stability coefficients were highest for FSIQ and VCI followed by PRI, WMI, and PSI scores.

• Interrater agreement ranged from .98 to .99 for most subtests

• Subtests that required greater clinical judgment ranged from .91 to .97.

(Hays, D. 2013)
• Validity scores were based on test content, internal structure, relationships with other tests, and distinct group differences comparisons.

• Subtest and index score correlation matrices showed that subtests within the same domain had higher correlations with each other than those of a different domain.

• All intersubtest correlations were positive and reflected Spearman’s (1904) positive manifold, shared variance, and measurement of the general intelligence factor.

(Canivez, 2010)
Validity in Correlation to Tests
• Comparing WAIS-IV FSIQ with Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II) produced composites ranging from .65-.88 and ranging .42-.80 for WIAT-II subtests.

• Comparing WAIS-IV FSIQ with Wechsler Individual Achievement Test- Thirst Edition (WIAT-III) produced composites ranging from .59-.82 and ranging .33-.81 for WIAT-III subtests.

• This showed typically strong relationships with academic achievement measures.

(Canivez, 2010)
Sample Test
Good standardization
-samples 4 geographic regions, both sexes, the major ethnic groups, the full socioeconomic range

Useful diagnostic information
-useful to assess cognitive abilities (16 to 90), helpful for planning, the 4 individual scales are helpful is assessing brain-behavior relationships

Good overall psychometric properties
-Working Memory, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Full Scale
Inclusion of process scores
-potentially valuable diagnostic information

Good administration procedures
-actively probes

Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) is a term coined for an individual’s complete cognitive capacity.

Failure to provide conversion tables
-this if for computing index scores and FSIQs when supplemental subtests are substituted for core subjects

Reduced number of subtests for individuals ages 70 to 90 years
-Number Sequencing, Figure Weights, Cancellation

Limited range of scores for individuals who are extremely low functioning or who ar extremely high functioning

Limited criterion validity studies
-only on other tests published by Pearson

Limited information about practice effects
-retest intervals of less than 12 weeks
Ryan, 2009.
Ryan, 2009.
Ryan, 2009.
Lichtenberger, 2013
Lichtenberger, 2013
Ryan, 2009
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