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Transcript of Inclusion
A presentation on the aspects of Inclusion, developmentally appropriate practice, and teacher training qualifications.
Support and Ideas for Inclusion
Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Definition and Aspects of Inclusion
Inclusion is defined by The Exceptional
Child as: children with special needs
attending school, childcare, and
recreational programs with typically
Teamwork Is Key
On the other hand this can be a
pro if both teacher’s work together
and enhance each other’s skills to
benefit the children of the classroom.
According to Westling and Fox (2009), “The
special education teacher should work with the
general education teacher to develop activities
that promote appropriate learning for students
with severe disabilities and that foster social
interactions between students with and
without severe disabilities." (p. 34.).
This can be taken as a pro and con.
If either teacher isn't
receptive to working with
the other than the children
of the classroom will suffer
since they will not get the most
out of their learning experience.
Used Across the Grades
Inclusion may be used with
various age groups in the
According to Causton-Theoharis,
Theoharis, Orsati, and Cosier (2011),
"Numerous scholars contend that
students with and without disabilities
benefit both socially and academically
from inclusive services. (p.61).
On the other side a con of inclusion
is that often inclusion is put into
action by schools without giving the
teaching staff proper training, enough
planning time throughout the day, or an
appropriate forum for them to voice
their opinions, concerns, and
suggestions. (Berg, 2004, p. 37).
Learning activities based on teachers’ knowledge of
The National Association for
the Education of Young
Children (NAEYC) has set
guidelines to ensure high
quality early childhood
One Kindergarten Teacher
shares the joys her class has experienced with inclusion
"Both he and Tayvon are contributing deeply to each
other’s reading: Kevin helps
Tayvon read challenging words,
while Tayvon prompts Kevin
to notice characters’
A blog with free podcasts and information about making inclusion work in your classroom!
Idea Sketch - easily draw a diagram, mind map, concept map or flow chart
Dragon Dictation - speak and instantly see your message
Read 2 Go - e-book reader
Voice Dream Reader - can extract and speak text
vBookz - can read PDF files as reads Audiobooks
Kurzwell Firefly - text to speech with speed, voice and pacing accommodations
Reading and Writing Apps
That Support Inclusion
The dominating principal is that programs
should be developmentally appropriate. This includes
age appropriateness and individual appropriateness.
NAEYC defines developmentally appropriate
practice as meeting children where they are
and enabling them to reach goals that
are both challenging and
Principles of DAP
NAEYC revised the guidelines for developmentally appropriate practice in 2009, highlighting three challenges.
1) Reducing learning gaps and increasing achievement
of all children.
2) Creating improved better connected education
for preschool and elementary children.
3) Recognizing teacher knowledge and decision
making as vital to educational
Guidelines for DAP
The concept of developmental appropriateness is essential for programs serving all young children. For children with developmental disabilities, these guidelines are necessary but not sufficient.
They must be supplemented with specialized services depending
on each individual.
The Five Secrets to
Being A Special Education
Teacher And Still Love
1. Understand it is not about YOU
2. Realize you are not alone. There are approximately 3.9 million teachers (including public and private) in the United States. Whether they are special education teachers or not… each one of them has a stake in education as a whole and has an interest in making it better.
3. Develop your Personal Learning Network (PLN). Find websites that relate to your work and use the resources of technology to talk with parents students and co teachers to better your abilities to work with these students.
4. Have high expectations for yourself and your students. Have some respect for your students that they can learn and will learn when given the correct supports.
5. Make friends with General Education Teachers and then collaborate with them. Make friends teachers are willing to help students
Universities and colleges offer bachelor's, master's
and doctoral degrees in special education. Aspiring
special education teachers combine knowledge of disabilities such as visual impairment, autism or Downs syndrome with practical procedures for teaching science, math and reading skills to students with special needs. Specialized courses may examine topics like low-incidence disabilities and technology for differentiated instruction. Most special education training will also include supervised classroom teaching and curriculum development courses.
Special education teachers require a
teaching license from the state Board of Education in order to teach in their field. Traditional teacher licensing programs require a bachelor's degree to teach grades K-12, but due to the high level of specialization in the field of special education, some states may require additional training - such as a master's
degree - before applying for a
Special education teachers must be prepared to work with students who may be uncooperative or difficult to access, such as non-English speaking students. As a result, teachers must be patient and creative, with an ability to understand and motivate students by expressing complex ideas using a variety of exercises and techniques
Berg, S. L. ((n.d.)). Retrieved from http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2005/2005bergs.pdf
Causton-Theoharis, J., Theoharis, G., Orsati, F., & Cosier, M. (2011). Does Self-Contained
Fox, Lise. Westling, David, L. (2009). Teaching Students with Severe Disabilities. Columbus, OH: Pearson
8 Important Tips for
Working with Special Education Students
3. Use Common Sense
4. Be Flexible
5. Be Consistent
6. Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Cues
7. Have a plan and a back-up plan
8. Be Positive
A Final Reflection About
Inclusion is more than placing the student in the general Education classroom. It requires communication with the parents, student, and other teachers in the school. Inclusion must be individualized
based on each child's unique
story and needs.