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British culture: the economy and everyday life
Transcript of British culture: the economy and everyday life
THE ECONOMY AND
I. The economy and everyday life
. Earning money
1.1 Attitudes to work
In general, the British lack of enthusiasm for work which is slow changing.
Traditionally, a major sign of being middle class has been that you do non-manual work.
The lack of enthusiasm to work is slow changing.
How the British are paid:
Three main ways looking for work in Britain:
Local job center and
Privately-run employment agencies.
Most new job opportunities in the service sector:
The decline of heavy industry fewer jobs in stereotypical ‘men’s work’.
The rise in service occupations increase in vacancies for stereotypical ‘women’s work’.
3 large work organizations:
Employers in private industry.
Employees in all types of business.
Agricultural employers and independent farmers.
. The structure of trade and industry
4.1. Definition of wealth
. The distribution of wealth
4.2. Distribution of wealth
. Finance and investment
II. Comparison between BRITAIN and VIET NAM
.The comparison between Britain and Vietnam in term of economy.
II. Comparison between BRITAIN
1. In terms of economy.
2. In terms of daily life.
A. Introduction: Britain
The third largest economy in Europe after Germany and France in nominal terms.
The second largest after Germany in terms of purchasing power parity.
The second largest financial economy in the World, second only to the United States.
Home to many of the World’s largest banks and companies.
Non - manual
Usually in cash
By cheque or into bank
The traditional lack of enthusiasm for work
Why the working day starting rather late (usually at eight o’clock for manual workers and around nine for non-manual workers).
Comparison with most European counties
In 1980s, ‘market forces’ rules - a major part of philosophy of the Conservative government.
Turn to state - owned companies into companies owned by individuals.
1980 - 1988, more shareholders in the country than there were members of unions.
Local government authorities were encouraged to “contract out” their responsibility for the services to commercial organization.
Wealth inequality is partly a production of lifecycle effects.
The Gini coefficient for personal assets, overall, was 0.61 according to WAS in 2008/10 – the same level as in 2006/8. But the level of inequality varied considerably by types of wealth as follow:
+ 0.81 for net financial wealth
+ 0.76 for private pension wealth
+ 0.91 for net property wealth
+ 0.45 for physical wealth
Rates of income tax changed
For a short period 1960s - 1980s, the basic rate was 40%.
By the early eighties it was 30% then went down to 25%.
The top rate of income tax fell from a high of 98% to 40%.
Rates of pay for the best-paid jobs increased faster than those for badly-paid jobs.
In the UK, a marginal tax rate system:
Mean income tax is charged on income above a certain level.
Not mean if you earn £200.000 you pay 50% on the whole £200.000. You only pay 50% on the income earned above £150.000 after the personal allowance is included.
An increase in the number of people on benefits
The number of people receiving state benefits is still around 5 million despite falling unemployment
An increasing number of people on state benefits such as sickness and incapacity benefits.
Arguably there is disguised unemployment meaning that many people have lower incomes.
Rising property values have reduced disposable incomes for many young people.
Made renting more expensive.
An increasing percent of incomes has been spent on housing costs.
Also an undeniable increase in wealth inequality, which often leads to income inequality.
There has been an increase in part time/ temporary work.
This work is not protected by trades unions and tends to be low paid.
The minimum wage is limited in its ability to reduce inequality.
Many of those who benefits from the NMW are second income earners or students who are not particularly poor.
Increase in regressive indirect taxes.
Taxes on alcohol, petrol and cigarettes have increased faster than inflation.
Taking a high percent of people’s disposable income particularly affected groups such as the single unemployed.
Inflation for pensioners has been higher than the CPI rate.
This because pensioners spend a higher percent of income on goods like council tax, fuel and food
These goods have been increasing faster than inflation, leaving pensioners relatively poorer.
• Digital communications
. Spending money: Shopping
. Shop opening hours
There were two-and –a half times as many unemployed men as there were unemployed women.
Men seek employment as nurses, child careers, shop assistants, secretaries which considered to be more suitable for women but not hired.
Illegal for women to be paid less than men for the some job.
The average full-time male employee earned about 50% more than the average full-time female worker.
CBI (Confederation of British Industry)
The UK's leading business organization.
Represent employers in private industry.
Speak for some 240,000 businesses from the perspective of their leadership for all sectors:
Fifty-eight affiliated unions.
A total of about 6.2 million members.
The number of unions affiliated to the TUC has declined dramatically over the twentieth century, as smaller unions repeatedly merged into larger ones.
TUC (The Trades Union Congress)
A federation of trade unions in the United Kingdom.
Represent employees in all types of business.
Not belong to the TUC.
Made up mostly of agricultural employers and independent farmers.
NUF (The National Union of Farmers)
The modernization of business and industry happened later.
Large scale organization had been more common in Britain than in other European countries for quite a long time.
The economic system is a mixture of private and public enterprise.
By 1980s, ‘pure’ capitalism formed a smaller part of the economy than any other country in Western Europe.
From 1980, the trend stated going in the other direction.
The privatization of the services has necessitated the creation of various public ‘watchdog’ organization with regulatory powers over the industries which they have monitor.
For example, Alliance Boost is a leading international, pharmacy-led health and beauty group delivering a range of products and services to customers.
The top 10% in the income distribution received 31% of income in 2006/8.
The top 10% in the wealth distribution received 44% of wealth.
Wealth is more unequally distributed than income.
The graph shows that for every pound that the poorest 20% of the population in Britain had in 1978, most people had two pounds and the richest 20% of the population had 3 pounds.
In 1994 the gap in wealth had grown. The richest people were about 25 richer. The poorest people had, however, become slightly poorer.
Partly explained by the fact that young people and older people will have lower levels of wealth than those in middle age.
The widening gap between rich and poor:
Class and wealth do not run parallel not a country where people are especially keen to flaunt their wealth.
People don’t like being poor, but they do not feel obliged to hide the fact.
Sometimes lead to some acceptance of poverty which is surprising for an “advanced” country.
4.3. Reasons for distribution of wealth in Britain
The main focuses in The UK Government investment plan:
The UK’s Government will provide 3.3 billion Pounds of new funding for affordable housing between 2015-2016 and 2017-2018 which support total delivery of 165.000 new affordable homes in England over the next 3 years.
Not very adventurous shoppers.
Like reliability .
Buy brand-name goods wherever possible, preferably with the price clearly marked.
A very high proportion of the country's shops are branches of chain stores.
Not demand art in their shop windows.
Slow to take on the idea that shopping might actually be fun
In the last quarter of the twentieth century, supermarkets began moving out of town, became bigger, turning into “hypermarkets” stocking a wider variety of items.
In 1993, the first warehouse shopping club in European was opened by the American company Costco.
In 1980, only 5% of shop sales took place in European.
In 1994, this figure had jumped to 25%.
The area in town where the local shops are concentrated known as the high street.
Away from the town centre, a shop by itself in a residential area referred to as “the corner shop” providing groceries to local customers.
Travelling in Britain, visitors are also sometimes struck by the variety of types of shop such as:
- Department stores: including large retail stores with many goods and services but they are quite expensive.
- Showrooms: area where merchandise can be displayed.
- Shopping centre: it’s a group of shops, including Restaurants, packing areas, movie houses.
- Corner shops, off-licenses, charity shops, chain stores, warehouses, supermarkets, and so on.
Usual shop opening hours depend on the type of business and the location.
Sunday shopping in England and Wales.
Sunday shopping in Northern Ireland and Scotland.
A day that Christian tradition typically recognizes as the Sabbath.
A "day of rest".
Rules governing shopping hours vary around the world.
Refer to the ability of retailers to operate stores on Sunday
Some countries continue to ban Sunday shopping such as Germany, France …
Not generally permitted until 1994: department stores and supermarkets were not able to open legally.
Before 1994, Several large retailers challenged the legal ruling in force by opening on Sundays.
Argued that Sunday should be special, a day of rest, a day for all the family to be together.
In 1993, Parliament voted on the matter.
In 1994, the Sunday Trading Act permitted:
Large shops to open for up to six hours on Sunday between the hours of 10 am and 4 pm.
Small shops with an area of below 280 square metres, free to set the own Sunday trading times.
Shops exempt from the Sunday trading restrictions for large shops include:
• Airport and railway station outlets
• Service station outlets
• Registered pharmacies selling only medicinal products and medical and surgical appliances
• Farms selling mainly their own produce
• Outlets wholly or mainly selling motor or bicycle supplies and accessories
• Suppliers of goods to aircraft or sea-going vessels on arrival at, or departure from, a port, harbor or airport
• Exhibition stands selling goods
In Northern Ireland:
a 1997 law
"Removed the restrictions on the goods which may be sold in shops on Sunday",
Allowed small shops (under 280 sq m) to trade any time on Sunday and allowed big shops to trade for a maximum of five hours between 13:00 and 18:00.
no restrictions and shops often open for long hours on Sundays.
.The comparison between Britain and Vietnam in term of economy.
.The comparison between Britain and Vietnam in term of economy.
2.1. In eating.
2.2. In working.
2.3. In shopping.
With the victory of the bourgeois revolution (16-18th century), being the first country carried out the Industrial revolution in the late 18th century, Britain had chance to develop their capitalistic economy.
- The United Kingdom enjoyed a long period without a major recession (from 1945 to 1973).
- From 1973 to now, Britain had faced with many crisis: 1973 oil crisis and the 1973–1974 stock market crash, 2008–09 recession,…
- During the 1980s most state-owned enterprises were privatised, taxes cut, union reforms passed and markets deregulated
=> the UK dropped from 5th place to 12th place in terms of household income.
With the starting point from agricultural country with 1000 years of feudal domination, Vietnam had experienced many a lot of wars: against the France, the U.S. Over 200-years, we just had time to rebuilt our infrastructure.
- 1976-1986: centrally plan economy, known as “Subsided Economy”.
- In December 1986, the 6th congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam was taken place. At the congress, delegates reached consensus on a reforming program. Since 1986, DoiMoi (Reform) has been launched in economy, politics and society.
- Structure of Vietnam’s economy involves three main sectors: (I) agriculture, forestry and aquaculture; (II) industry and construction; (III) service.
3. Means of paying money in general
4. Unemployment rates (%)
5. Work organizations
6. The economic structure
7. The distribution of wealth
The skilled manual (or blue-collar) workers have been paid more highly than the lower grades of ‘white collar’ (or non-manual) workers. The blue-collar have been regarded as high education level and had formal certificates.
Means of paying money in general
Manual workers are evaluated by hour/week, known as wages, paid every week, in cash.
Manual workers are evaluated by hours they worked, known as salary, paid every month, in cash or by card.
Non-manual workers are evaluated by year, known as salary, paid every month, in cheque or card.
Non-manual workers are evaluated by month, known as salary, paid every month, by card.
3 large work organizations:
(Confederation of British Industry): the UK’s leading business organization, speaks for all sectors: agriculture, aerospace , construction, creative, education, financial services, IT,…
(The Trade Union Congress): is a national trade union centre, a federation of trade unions in the United Kingdom, representing employees in all types of business.
(The National Union of Farmers): does not belong to the TUC, being made up mostly of agriculture employees and independent farmers.
2 main work organizations:
(The Vietnam General Confederation of Labour) is the national trade union centre in Vietnam. All trade unions in Vietnam are required to affiliate to the VGCL is one of the mass movements of the Vietnamese Fatherland Front.
(Vietnam National Farmers Union): is one the largest mass organization in Vietnam with a central office in Hanoi and branches in all 63 provinces.
The economy structure
The seven largest national economy in the world.
A developing planned economy and market economy.
Market oriented economy
GDP per capital
Labour force by occupa
Agriculture : 0.7%
Industry : 21.5%
Services : 77.8% (2013)
Agriculture : 19.3%
Industry : 38.5%
Services : 42.2% (2013)
75.6% GDP (April 2014)
50.4% of GDP (2013)
- Rich and diverse market
- Creative and innovative
- Trading nation
- 13.9% of GDP (2012)
- Fast growth
- Cheap share price
- Good completion environment
- 28.2% of GDP (2012)
- Revenues: $995.9 billion
- Expenditures: $1.183 trillion (2012 )
- Expenditures: $47.57 billion (2012)
In 2012, weak consumer spending and subdued business investment weighed on the economy.
GDP fell 0.1%, and the budget deficit remained stubbornly high at 7.7% of GDP.
Public debt continued to increase.
In early 2012 Vietnam unveiled a broad, "three pillar" economic reform program, proposing the restructuring of public investment, state-owned enterprises, and the banking sector.
Vietnam's economy continues to face challenges from an undercapitalized banking sector.
Non-performing loans weigh heavily on banks and businesses.
In September 2012, the official bad debt ratio climbed to 8.8%.
- Revenues: $42.14 billion
bution of wealth
- 1970s, Britain is one of the most equitable distributions of wealth in western Europe.
- 1990s, it had one of the least equitable.
- The rich-poor gap has become wider amid the rising number of rich people.
- For example: Over the past 2 decades, Vietnam successfully reduces the poverty rate from 58,1% to under 10% but, the gap between the richs and the poor is larger, at 9,2 (2010) & 9,4 (2012).
.The comparison between Britain and Vietnam in term of economy.
2.1. In eating
2.2. In working
2.3. In shopping
Having 3 meals per day
Beef, lamb, pork, chicken and fish and generally served with potatoes and one other vegetable.
Rice, pork and vegetable as the main ingredients.
Most common foods
Sandwich, fish and chips
Pho, Banh mi, Xoi
- Eat with a knife, fork or spoon.
- Usually use napkins and drink during meal.
- Usually use chopsticks and spoon.
- Not use napkins but wash their hands and their faces before and after every meal.
- Not drink during eating, drink afterward.
Rice is the main starch and meat is cut into small pieces before cooking because Vietnamese never use knife during meal.
Potato or bread is the main starch and meat is cooked in big pieces, they cut it during eating.
Before having meal
Normally pray for the God because of providing them with food.
Everybody (especially young people) have to invite other members having meal.
Work- ing time
- Monday-Saturday: 9a.m to 5p.m
Sunday: 10a.m to 4p.m (or 11a.m to 5p.m)
- The working day starts rather late because of the traditional lack of enthusiasm of work.
- Monday to Friday and (some) until noon on Saturday: start between 7a.m to 5p.m
- The Saturday afternoon and Sunday off.
- 9 days off work (New Year's Day: 2 days, Good Friday, May Day, Spring Holiday, Summer Holiday, St. Andrew's Day, Christmas Day, Boxing Day)
- The United Kingdom has no national day holiday celebrated.
- 10 days off work (New year’s day, Lunar New Year’s Day: 5 days, Hung Kings’ Day, Liberation Day, International Workers’ Day, National Day).
- The normal lunch break is an hour or less and most people continue working until five or later.
- Lunch is taken very seriously and virtually everything shuts downs between noon and 1.30p.m
- Government workers tend to take longer breaks.
Attitude to work
- Lack of enthusiasm for work.
- The skilled manual (or blue-collar) workers have been paid more highly than the lower grades of ‘white collar’ (or non-manual) worker.
- ‘Anti work’ outlook among the working class has led to a relative lack of enthusiasm and a belief that high earnings are more important than job satisfaction.
- White-collar workers have been paid higher than blue-collar workers because they have been regarded as high education level and had formal certificates.
- People tend to become white-collar if they have suitable conditions.
Spending money: Shopping
Shop opening hours:
he key drivers of economic growth
Invest in the long term development of science and innovation infrastructure.
Attract both foreign and leading scientists and create a partnership network from across the globe.
Invest an additional 185 million Pounds in resource funding for the Technology Strategy Board in 2015-2016 to support innovation.
Bridge the gap between discovery and commercialisation.
Provided 1.4 billion Pounds for science capital since 2010, bringing total capital investment to 3.5 billion Pound over the period from 2011-2012 to 2014-2015.
Provide a long-term commitment for science infrastructure by:
Setting an overall growing budget
Ensuring that the UK’s cutting edge scientific research and innovation puts it at the front of the global race.
Securing investment in energy infrastructure is essential for the UK to compete in the global economy.
The Government is taking action to provide the support and policy certainty needed to enable up to 110 billion Pounds of private sector energy investment which will be needed over the coming years. In particular the Government is:
Announcing its proposals for the prices that will be available for renewable energy generation from next year,
Implementing a regime that will make sure that there are enough power stations available when necessary,
Publishing a comprehensive package of reforms to enable shale gas exploration,
Allocating additional capital of 800 million Pounds in 2015-2016 for the Green Investment Bank and 75 million Pounds of capital for investment in innovative energy projects.
- Most city shops open at about 8am and do not close until late in the evening at 8pm or 9pm.
- The newer malls and department stores in big cities open by 10pm.
- The traditional markets: Ben Thanh in Ho Chi Minh City and Dong Xuan in Hanoi, generally operate from sunrise to sunset.
- Virtually all retail operations operate seven days a week.
- During Tet, some shops shut down for a few days, while others open later than usual.
- Prefer brand-goods to show off.
- Care too much about prices.
- Always bargain in anywhere at any time buying products.
- Prefer to buy goods on promotion
- Have the most people who buy goods on promotion among the Asian countries with 87% regularly purchase promotions, compared with an average of 68% of the area.
A hand-bag is tagged 500.000 VND, most of women will consider carefully before buying.
But when this hand-bag was tagged 500.000 VND too with a more tag “sale 50%’, lots of women are excited about buying it.
I. The economy and everyday life
1. Earning money
3. The structure of trade and industry
4. The distribution of wealth
5. Finance and investment
6. Spending money: Shopping
7. Shop opening hours
1. Phan Thi Quyen
2. Tran Thi Thanh Tam
3. Nguyen Ha Quy
4. Pham Thi Nhung
5. Pham Nhu Quynh
6. Nguyen Trang Thanh
In the early 1970s, one of the most equitable distributions of wealth in Western ẺEurope.
By the early 1990s, one of the least equitable. The richer had got richer but the poor had not:
The gap between the richest 10% of the population and the poorest 10%.
The distribution of wealth is highly unequal with the wealthiest 10% of households more than four times wealthier than the bottom 50% in 2008/10.
The abundance of valuable resources or material possessions.
An abundance of possessions or resources to the benefit of the common good.
Significance in all areas of economics, growth and development economics.
“Anything of value”.
- Like reliability.
- Buy brand-name goods wherever possible, preferably with the price clearly marked.
- Not very adventurous shoppers.
- Not very keen on haggling over prices.
- Do not demand art in their shop windows.
- In general, they have been rather slow to take on the idea that shopping might actually be fun.
- Most shops are chain stores.
- The normal time for shops to open is at 9a.m.
- Large supermarkets stay open all day until about eight o’clock.
- Most small shops stay open all day and then close at half-past five or a bit later.
- In some towns there is an “early closing day” when the shops shut at middle day and do not open again.
- Sunday shopping - Sunday should be special, a day of rest, a day for all the family to be together.
In the world, The United Kingdom:
The 6th-largest national economy measured by nominal GDP
The 8th-largest measured by purchasing power parity (PPP)
The 3rd largest economy after Germany and France in nominal terms.
The 2nd largest after Germany in terms of purchasing power parity.
The first country carried out the Industrial revolution in the late 18th century.
The experienced lessons they left in the past are very valuable.
Vietnam should learn from the experience and applies it on the economy.
4 experienced lessons:
Promote the economy shifts towards industrialization and modernization sustainably and international integration with the formation of the key industry.
Both focus on boosting industrialization and modernization of agriculture and increase investment in infrastructure.
Promote agricultural production oriented commodity production.
Concentrate on increasing a more service industry oriented economy and reduce density of agriculture in the economy structure.
Nowadays, Vietnam and Britain are also strengthening, supporting and developing economic cooperation together.
Bring not only strong growth economic relations between the two countries, but also contribute to enhance the cultural life and society of both countries.
Pham Gia Khiem, Deputy Prime Minister and
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Vietnam visiting UK
1960s - 1970s:
Poor roads quality create congestion.
Increased fuel consumption.
Damage to vehicles.
- The Government committed to major investment in the road network in the Parliament by:
Investing over 4 billion by 2020-2021 to enable the Highways Agency to repair and renew the national work network.
Transforming Highways Agency into a publicly-owned corporation and tackling maintaining road repair backlog.
Upgrade railway network.
Built High Speed 2 with trains travelling at up to 400 kilometers per hour Confirm support for Network Rail to invest over 9 billion Pounds in major rail projects.
Enable fundamental change to the way economy is connected.
Consider digital communication as new possibilities and opportunities.
The UK’s Government investment up to 250 million Pounds:
Extend superfast broadband provision from current coverage plans.
95% of UK premises will have access to superfast broadband by 2017.
Expand coverage further, using more innovative fixed, wireless and mobile broadband solutions, to reach at least 99% of premises in the UK by 2018.
Depend on the type of business and the location
Normal time to open: 9 a.m.
Large out-of-town supermarkets stay open all day until about 8 p.m
Small shops stay open all day and close at half-past five or a bit later.
Nowadays, shop opening hours have become more varied.
Hypermarkets and superstores are open from Monday to Saturday, from around 6:00 or 7:00 am till 10:00 or 11:00 pm