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Transcript of Learning Theories
Hart-Landesberg, Braunger, and Reder (1992) studied how hospital workers "learn the ropes." “These workers learn and do concurrently, reflecting on their actions in order to interpret and reconstruct the knowledge they acquire.” (Kerka, 1997)
Teachers use constructivism as a primary teaching method; “using a constructivist approach, teachers facilitate learning by encouraging active inquiry, guiding learners to question their tacit assumptions, and coaching them in the construction process” (Kerka, 1997).
Constructivism and self-education, an example of this is participating in the group discussions about assignments, when another member asks a question about an assignment that you never thought to ask and you find the answer very useful.
Development of educational technology, social constructivism can be achieved on a global level, through the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. (Robinson, 2014)
It has been developed by multiple theorists each theorist using other theories as a basis for there research: “Burr (1995) acknowledges the major influence of Berger and Luckmann (1991) in its development. In turn they acknowledge the influence of Mead, Marx, Schutz and Durkheim on their thinking.” (Groundedtheoryreview.com,2016)
Multimedia Learning in the domain of work-based education is an ever-growing phenomenon (Pimmer, C. and Pachler, N., 2014). Professional development can be distributed to an off-site workforce leveraging learner-centred creation. This encourages a social learning platform to problem solve and provide feedback (Eraut, 2007).
Self-education is used to increase motivation and academic outcomes (Wankel, L.A., Wankel, C. & Blessinger, P., 2013). This allows for more freedom of time barriers. Learning is student centred where the participants are more engaged and therefore gaining a deeper understanding (Anon n.d, 2016).
Multimedia learning in modern schools has given ascension to virtual schools. For rationale of bullying or medical issues some students can utilise e-learning outside of the conventional arena. This form of learning often transcends barriers of location, income level and class size (Julian, 2009).
Tools can be deployed to provide students social networks and virtual classrooms. These can be used to provide a platform for interactivity and non-linear approaches. Therefore, providing interactivty and asynchronous feedback from facilitators (Farwell, 2013).
Learning experience is moving from a static computer based environment to an Augmented reality. This creates layers of information both virtual and real, opening up for further variations and possibilities with rich cognitive content and visuals (Lubrecht, 2012).
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Modern behaviorism offers a comprehensive motivation approach, beginning with employee selection and placement, continuing with training and using reinforcement and reward systems. Whether simplistic (praise) or comprehensive (incentive schemes), properly used systems increase targeted behaviors and results (McGee & Johnson, 2015).
Behaviourism focuses on knowledge reproduction using direct, teacher-centered instruction (lectures) followed by individual drill activities (Anon, 2016). As behaviour is controlled by its consequences, the use of rewards (positive reinforcements) and punishments (negative reinforcements) follow (Porter, 2007).
Watson applied Pavlov’s conditioning theory principles on humans and founded a new school of thought termed behaviourism (Gray & MacBlain, 2012). Thorndike and Skinner amongst others progressed the theory from being passive to active through to cognitive behaviourism today.
Skinner’s rote-and-drill teaching machine (1958) housed, displayed, and presented programmed instruction. It’s viewed as a form of early technology and findings can be applied to today’s computer programs. Comparing it to current educational software programs, similarities appear (Weegar & Pacis, 2012).
Curriculum is chunked into smaller more manageable instructional steps. New technologies allowing better synchronous communication means instructors are able to provide rewards and feedback (reinforcement) in real time improving student’s motivation (Weegar & Pacis, 2012).
How we learn and develop has fascinated so many people that over time a plethora of theories and approaches have come to be for how the process occurs and the best method to use in instruction (Edwards, 2009). This prezi looks into 5 of these theories, Behaviourism, Social Constructivism, Multiple Intelligences, Multimedia Learning and Cognitive Development in the areas of Time, Within The Workplace, P-12 schooling, Self-Education and Technology.
Cognitive development in the workplace refers to employee’s skills when carrying out knowledge-based tasks. “Employees with strong cognitive skills can learn quickly and handle multiple complex tasks simultaneously ” (Work.chron.com, 2016)
Cognitive skills will continue to develop with time. Technology is a key element that can be linked to time, as the development in technology will continue in the workplace, education, and society.
Cognitive development in children from K-12 begins at a young age. Cognitive development refers to the skills, routines and life lessons a child acquires at a young age. Some examples of cognitive development include:
• Following instruction
• Identifying their name
• Beginning to read simple words
Cognitive development in self-education is influenced by self-efficacy. “Students beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and to master academic activities determine their aspirations” (Bandura, 1993). Therefore, cognitive development is promoted through motivation and the learning environment.
The requirement for cognitive skills in technology has gradually grown over the years. Students are now exposed to virtual classrooms. “These instruments can be used to provide a platform for interactivity, quizzes, media and other nonlinear adaptive approaches (Farwell, 2013)”.
- created by Dr. Howard Gardner in 1983
- as at the time, current IQ tests seemed to be far to limiting.
There are nine current intelligences (although not limiting others) are:
"it is key that teachers consider a range of activities related to the content of the lesson, as it gives greater opportunities to children and their different intelligences" (Pritchard, 2005. pp.39).
We can use technology that is available to us, to help explain and understand information that we as humans may not be able to provide ourselves.
- Using recordings if we aren’t musical ourself.
An individuals particular strengths in intelligences have a direct bearing upon the way in which their learning takes place.
We can develop:
- Biological endowment
- Personal life history
- Cultural and historical background
In the workplace, employees and employers need to be able work together effectively and efficiently, often for this to be achieved, we need to have a range of intelligences.
Bosses whose employees stay are bosses who manage with multiple intelligences (Cherniss, 2001).
The process of learning is complicated and important to society and the advancement of the collective intelligence (Weibell, 2011). This pursuit has been approached from a variety of perspectives. The five most projecting are the observation of Social Constructivism, Behaviorism, Multimedia Learning, Multiple Intelligences and Cognitive Development. With the assistance of new ways to access material and spaces we can stimulate the learning experience, and achieve better engagement and collaboration within a contemporary environment. These five theories can be used as a guideline to better increase cognitive output and to better contribute and consume learning material in the many social contexts (Illeris, Knud, 2004).
Anon 2016, "Behavioral Theories", Viking.coe.uh.edu, viewed 9 May, 2016, <http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm>.
Anon n.d., “Centre for Excellence in Enquiry-Based-Learning,” What is Enquiry-Based Learning, viewed 7 May, 2016, < http://www.ceebl.manchester.ac.uk/ebl/ >
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Education sychologist, 28(2), pp.117-148.
Edwards, S 2009, Early childhood education and care: a sociocultural approach, Pademelon Press, Castle Hill, NSW, pp. 5-11.
Eraut, M. (2007). Learning from other people in the workplace. Oxford Review of Education, 33 (4), pp . 403–422.
Farwell (2013). "Keeping an Online Class Interesting and Interactive". Distance Learning 10 (3): 27–32.
Gray, C & MacBlain, S 2012, Learning theories in childhood, Sage, London, pp. 29-42.
Groundedtheoryreview.com. (2016). What is Social Constructionism? I Grounded Review. [online] available at: http://groundedtheoryreview.com/2012/06/01/what-is-social-constructionism/ [Accessed 3 May 2016]
Hart-Landsberg, S.; Braunger, J.; and Reder, S (1992). Learning the ropes, Berkeley, CA: National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Graduate School of Education, University of California Berkeley.
Julian, L, (2009, "The Rise of CyberSchools," The New Atlantis, Number 24, pp. 109-112.
Kerka, S. (1997). Constructivism, workplace learning, and vocational education. Colombus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education Center on Education and Training for Employment, College of Education, the Ohio State University.
Lubrecht, A. Augmented Reality for Education ‘’Digital Union’’, The Ohio State University 24 April 2012.
McGee, H & Johnson, D 2015, "Performance Motivation as the Behaviorist Views It", Performance Improvement, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 15-21.
Pimmer, C. & Pachler, N., 2014. Mobile Learning in the Workplace: Unlocking the Value of Mobile Technology for Work-Based Education. Increasing Access through Mobile Learning [Online], 193–203. Available from: http://oasis.col.org/bitstream/handle/11599/558/pub_mobile%20learning_web.pdf#page=210 [Accessed May 7, 2016].
Porter, L 2007, Student behaviour, 3rd ed, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW.
Pritchard, A 2005, Ways of learning: Learning theories and learning styles in the classroom, David Fulton, London.
Reza Noruzi, M & Rahimi, G 2010, "Multiple Intelligences, A New Look to Organizational Effectiveness", jmr, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 1-15, viewed <http://macrothink.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/viewFile/375/254>.
Wankel, L.A., Wankel, C. & Blessinger, P., 2013. Increasing Student Engagement and Retention Using Multimedia Technologies : Video Annotation, Multimedia Applications, Videoconferencing and Transmedia Storytelling , Bradford: Emerald Book Serials and Monographs.
Weegar, D & Pacis, D 2012, "A Comparison of Two Theories of Learning -- Behaviorism and Constructivism as applied to Face-to-Face and Online Learning", viewed 9 May, 2016, <http://www.g-casa.com/conferences/manila/papers/Weegar.pdf>.
Work.chron.com. (2016). Employee Development and Cognitive Skills. [online] Available at: http://work.chron.com/employee-development-cognitive-skills-24502.html [Accessed 10 May 2016].