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The 1st Industrial Revolution - Beginnings and Great Britain (ca 1700 - 1870)

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Dawson McCall

on 10 February 2015

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Transcript of The 1st Industrial Revolution - Beginnings and Great Britain (ca 1700 - 1870)

The 1st Industrial Revolution - Beginnings & Great Britain (ca 1700 - ca 1850)
Traditional World (ca. Pre-1800)
Modern World (ca. Post 1800)
Rural, Agricultural
1800 - Less than 20% of global population lived in settlements of 2,000 people or more.
Natural Energy Human, Animal Powered
Subsistence Economies
Power of Religion Ex. - Power of Church in France
Local Identities
30 - 50 mile radius of experience
Nation-State Extractive, tributary, weak in administrative abilities, feudal or absolute, non-representative.
Manmade Energy (Synthetic Energy Production)
Human Mastery of Environment Instead of Human Submission
Increasingly Urban & Industrialized (i.e. - Mechanized)
Trade Based Economies (Commerce)
Religion Challenged by Science
Identities Mass Community; Increasingly Regional/Global; Travel; Access to Information
Nation-States Increasingly Representative (concept of rights); “Settler” Oriented; More Powerful Administratively; More Central
The Great Divergence & Modern Convergence
The Early 19th Century As An "Assault On Limits"
Population
The Malthusian Trap
Wealth & Inequality
Mercantilism
Capitalism
French Revolution & Napoleon As Symbols
Political
Connectivity
Global Trade Routes (ca 1800)
Global Trade Routes (ca 2000)
Meritocracy
Total War
End of the "Old Order"
Absolutism to Republicanism
Napoleonic Code
Social
Olympe de Gouge
Haitian Revolution
Military
"Modernity"
Phases of Industrialization
1) First Industrial Revolution (ca 1700 - ca 1850)
Great Britain
To A Lesser Extent - Parts of France, Belgium, Netherlands
Steam Engines & Mining
Textiles & Small Manufactured Good (i.e. - Clocks, Household Goods, Matches, etc.)

2) Second Industrial Revolution (ca 1850 - 1914)
Germany, United States, Parts of France
To A Lesser Extent - Parts of Western Russia, Japan
Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Psychology
Energy - Electricity & Petroleum
Chemical Development - Synthetics
Large Scale Construction - Shipping, Urban Structures, etc
RAILROADS

3 Contemporary Industrialization (1915 - Present)
China, Brazil, Parts of the Middle East, South Africa, Remainder of Russia
Cars
Large Household Goods
Communication Technology
Why Great Britain? (Competing Theories)
Cultural Determinism
Economic Determinism
The Atlantic World
Impact of the Enlightenment:
Society of the Arts in Britain
The Lunar Society (1765 - 1813)
The Royal Institution in London (Founded 1799)
Birmingham Philosophical Institution (Founded ca 1800)
British Coffee-Houses (1700s)
Geographic Determinism
Culture of Enlightenment
Purpose of the Royal Institution in London


"…diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for teaching, by courses of philosophical lectures and experiments, the application of science to the common purposes of life.”
Adam Smith & Capitalism
Do beliefs & attitudes matter in economic outcomes?
The change from
Mercantilism
to
Capitalism
.
Creation of joint stock companies (British East India Company) & stock markets.
Allow people to invest their money more freely.
Incentive for people to start businesses - entrepreneurial spirit.
Political Determinism
Government Policies
Patents & Property Rights
1624 - First British Patent Laws


Diffusion of Knowledge - Patentees required to publish details of new inventions (patents were part of the public record), making them available for public study.
Historian Joel Mokyr (Northwestern University) On Patents:
"It seems that the main effect of the patent system on innovation was to goad potential inventors into believing that they, too, could make as much money as...James Watt. In point of fact, precious few ever did, but the expectation may have been enough for many."
Cost of Taking Out British Patent
Patent Fee - 100 Pounds.
Travel Expenses
Room & Board During Application Process (Several Weeks)
France, Netherlands, Venice had all established patents by the mid-1600s.
Number of scholarly periodicals published in all of Europe:
1700 to 1710 - Avg of 21 per year
1720s - Avg of 34 per year
1740s- Avg of 77 per year
1790s - Avg of 531 per year

Representative Gov't
& Stability
The Glorious, Glorious, Glorious Revolution of 1688!!!
Parliament = Competing Factions Have Voices
The Roles of Wages
Britain's Global Colonial & Trading Empire (18th & 19th Century)
Colony (Until 1776)
Colony (As of 1763)
Colony (As of 1806)
Metropole
British Shipping
Spanish Shipping
Dutch Shipping
Period from 1588 to 1815 saw British naval power increase gradually.
Victories - 1588 (Spanish Armada), 1763 (Seven Years War), 1805 (Battle of Trafalgar)
Defeats - 1690 (Defeat by French), 1781 (Yorktown - US & France),
Napoleonic Wars left Britain the most powerful naval force in the world.
Foundation for growing global trading & colonial empire.
Video Notes
Thomas Malthus

Malthusian Trap

Impact of Malthusian Thought on Gov't Policies

Was Malthus Right?
Characteristics of the 1st Industrial Revolution
Britain as the "Workshop of the World"
Textiles, Factories, & Urbanization
Wages, Working Conditions, Child Labor, Gender Disparities
Responses & Government Reactions
What are the keys to creativity?
Video Notes:
1st Industrial Revolution Major Take-Aways
Early Phase of the 19th Century "Assault on Limits"
Great Britain As Regional & Global Superpower
Why Great Britain?
Why textiles?
Sets Stage For Growing British Empire
Beginning of Large Scale Industrialization & Urbanization
Working Conditions, Wages, Living Standards, Child Labor, Gender Disparities
Beginning of Government Workplace Regulations
Sets Stage For Conflict B/twn
Laissez Faire
Policies & Government Regulation of Busines
Organization of Labor - Luddites, Trade Unions, etc.
UK in 1860 - Roughly 25% of Total Global Manufacturing Output
Textile Innovations
Thomas Newcomen (Steam Engine, 1720 - England)
Richard Awkwright (Water Frame, 1769 - England)
James Hargreaves (Spinning Jenny, 1770 - England)
James Watt (Watt Steam Engine, 1775 - Scotland)
Samuel Crompton (Spinning Mule, 1779 - England)
The Rise of the Modern Factory
First Factories - Cotton Mills (late 1700s)
Spinning Jenny, Spinning Mule, Water Frame
1800 - 2/3 of all English textiles produced in "cotton industries."
1830s - Transition from cottage industry dominated production to factory dominated production.
Urbanization
Mid 1800s
- Britain world's leading textile manufacturer.
1830
- Lancashire County, England processed 85% of the world's total manufactured cotton.
The Debate on Wages
British Real Income/Person
1760 - $400/person
1800 - $430/person
1830 - $500/person
1860 - $800/person
Measured in 1970 $
Factory Working Conditions
Working Conditions In Early British Factories
12 - 16 Hour Work Days
6 - 7 Day Work Weeks
High Temperatures & Humidity
Lung & Ear Diseases
Tuberculosis, Bronchitis, Byssinosis
Heavy, Noisy, Hot Machinery
Deafness
Hand & Finger Mutilations
Burns
Women in the Workforce
What Were Jobs Like During The British Industrial Revolution?
Children in the Workforce
Why children?
Unstable Lives (ex - Low Life Expectancy)
Stable Communities (Slow, If Any Change)
Stable Lives (Ex - Long Life Exp)
Unstable Communities (Fast, Ever-Present Change)
Describe the Economic State of the World
Factory rooms must be ventilated & washed every two years (1802).
Children must be instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic during their 1st four years of work (1833).
Mill owners required to treat disease (1833).
Children under 9 unemployable (1833).
Wash factories every 14 months (1844).
Child’s ages to be verified by doctor (1844).
Machinery required to be fenced (1844).
British Factory Acts
The Luddites (1811 - 1817)
19th Century textile artisans who protested industrialization of textile industry.
Opposed by British Government.
Army suppression (1812 - 1814).
Public show trials (1813 - 1817).
Frame Breaking Act (1812)
Death penalty.
Penal transportation.
Organized Labor
Trade Union
- A continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment.
Organized labor outlawed as early as the 14th Century in England.
1799 - Combination Acts
outlawed the formation of trade unions.
1810s
- Unions active in England.
1818
- Philanthropic Society organized in Manchester, England.
Nobody Here
Nobody Here
Relative Share of World Manufacturing Output (1750 - 1900)
Gov't Restrictions on Exporting Textile Technology
Why would higher wages for workers contribute to the beginning of industrialization?
Mid-1700s
-
British workers were paid the highest wages in the world.
Global Leaders in GDP (1700 - 1870)
Western Europe
Qing China
Mughal India
United States

1700
1820
1870
$81 Billion
Measured in 1990 $ (PPP)
$159 Billion
$367 Billion
$82 Billion
$228 Billion
$189 Billion
$90 Billion
$111 Billion
$134 Billion
$0.5 Billion
(Colonies)
$12 Billion
$98 Billion
Source
: Angus Maddison, C
ontours of the World Economy, 1–2030 AD
(2007)
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain? (Four Theories)
Geographic Determinism
Cultural Determinism
Economic Determinism
Political Determinism
Full transcript