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The 1st Industrial Revolution - Beginnings and Great Britain (ca 1700 - 1870)
Transcript of The 1st Industrial Revolution - Beginnings and Great Britain (ca 1700 - 1870)
Traditional World (ca. Pre-1800)
Modern World (ca. Post 1800)
1800 - Less than 20% of global population lived in settlements of 2,000 people or more.
Natural Energy Human, Animal Powered
Power of Religion Ex. - Power of Church in France
30 - 50 mile radius of experience
Nation-State Extractive, tributary, weak in administrative abilities, feudal or absolute, non-representative.
Manmade Energy (Synthetic Energy Production)
Human Mastery of Environment Instead of Human Submission
Increasingly Urban & Industrialized (i.e. - Mechanized)
Trade Based Economies (Commerce)
Religion Challenged by Science
Identities Mass Community; Increasingly Regional/Global; Travel; Access to Information
Nation-States Increasingly Representative (concept of rights); “Settler” Oriented; More Powerful Administratively; More Central
The Great Divergence & Modern Convergence
The Early 19th Century As An "Assault On Limits"
The Malthusian Trap
Wealth & Inequality
French Revolution & Napoleon As Symbols
Global Trade Routes (ca 1800)
Global Trade Routes (ca 2000)
End of the "Old Order"
Absolutism to Republicanism
Olympe de Gouge
Phases of Industrialization
1) First Industrial Revolution (ca 1700 - ca 1850)
To A Lesser Extent - Parts of France, Belgium, Netherlands
Steam Engines & Mining
Textiles & Small Manufactured Good (i.e. - Clocks, Household Goods, Matches, etc.)
2) Second Industrial Revolution (ca 1850 - 1914)
Germany, United States, Parts of France
To A Lesser Extent - Parts of Western Russia, Japan
Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Psychology
Energy - Electricity & Petroleum
Chemical Development - Synthetics
Large Scale Construction - Shipping, Urban Structures, etc
3 Contemporary Industrialization (1915 - Present)
China, Brazil, Parts of the Middle East, South Africa, Remainder of Russia
Large Household Goods
Why Great Britain? (Competing Theories)
The Atlantic World
Impact of the Enlightenment:
Society of the Arts in Britain
The Lunar Society (1765 - 1813)
The Royal Institution in London (Founded 1799)
Birmingham Philosophical Institution (Founded ca 1800)
British Coffee-Houses (1700s)
Culture of Enlightenment
Purpose of the Royal Institution in London
"…diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for teaching, by courses of philosophical lectures and experiments, the application of science to the common purposes of life.”
Adam Smith & Capitalism
Do beliefs & attitudes matter in economic outcomes?
The change from
Creation of joint stock companies (British East India Company) & stock markets.
Allow people to invest their money more freely.
Incentive for people to start businesses - entrepreneurial spirit.
Patents & Property Rights
1624 - First British Patent Laws
Diffusion of Knowledge - Patentees required to publish details of new inventions (patents were part of the public record), making them available for public study.
Historian Joel Mokyr (Northwestern University) On Patents:
"It seems that the main effect of the patent system on innovation was to goad potential inventors into believing that they, too, could make as much money as...James Watt. In point of fact, precious few ever did, but the expectation may have been enough for many."
Cost of Taking Out British Patent
Patent Fee - 100 Pounds.
Room & Board During Application Process (Several Weeks)
France, Netherlands, Venice had all established patents by the mid-1600s.
Number of scholarly periodicals published in all of Europe:
1700 to 1710 - Avg of 21 per year
1720s - Avg of 34 per year
1740s- Avg of 77 per year
1790s - Avg of 531 per year
The Glorious, Glorious, Glorious Revolution of 1688!!!
Parliament = Competing Factions Have Voices
The Roles of Wages
Britain's Global Colonial & Trading Empire (18th & 19th Century)
Colony (Until 1776)
Colony (As of 1763)
Colony (As of 1806)
Period from 1588 to 1815 saw British naval power increase gradually.
Victories - 1588 (Spanish Armada), 1763 (Seven Years War), 1805 (Battle of Trafalgar)
Defeats - 1690 (Defeat by French), 1781 (Yorktown - US & France),
Napoleonic Wars left Britain the most powerful naval force in the world.
Foundation for growing global trading & colonial empire.
Impact of Malthusian Thought on Gov't Policies
Was Malthus Right?
Characteristics of the 1st Industrial Revolution
Britain as the "Workshop of the World"
Textiles, Factories, & Urbanization
Wages, Working Conditions, Child Labor, Gender Disparities
Responses & Government Reactions
What are the keys to creativity?
1st Industrial Revolution Major Take-Aways
Early Phase of the 19th Century "Assault on Limits"
Great Britain As Regional & Global Superpower
Why Great Britain?
Sets Stage For Growing British Empire
Beginning of Large Scale Industrialization & Urbanization
Working Conditions, Wages, Living Standards, Child Labor, Gender Disparities
Beginning of Government Workplace Regulations
Sets Stage For Conflict B/twn
Policies & Government Regulation of Busines
Organization of Labor - Luddites, Trade Unions, etc.
UK in 1860 - Roughly 25% of Total Global Manufacturing Output
Thomas Newcomen (Steam Engine, 1720 - England)
Richard Awkwright (Water Frame, 1769 - England)
James Hargreaves (Spinning Jenny, 1770 - England)
James Watt (Watt Steam Engine, 1775 - Scotland)
Samuel Crompton (Spinning Mule, 1779 - England)
The Rise of the Modern Factory
First Factories - Cotton Mills (late 1700s)
Spinning Jenny, Spinning Mule, Water Frame
1800 - 2/3 of all English textiles produced in "cotton industries."
1830s - Transition from cottage industry dominated production to factory dominated production.
- Britain world's leading textile manufacturer.
- Lancashire County, England processed 85% of the world's total manufactured cotton.
The Debate on Wages
British Real Income/Person
1760 - $400/person
1800 - $430/person
1830 - $500/person
1860 - $800/person
Measured in 1970 $
Factory Working Conditions
Working Conditions In Early British Factories
12 - 16 Hour Work Days
6 - 7 Day Work Weeks
High Temperatures & Humidity
Lung & Ear Diseases
Tuberculosis, Bronchitis, Byssinosis
Heavy, Noisy, Hot Machinery
Hand & Finger Mutilations
Women in the Workforce
What Were Jobs Like During The British Industrial Revolution?
Children in the Workforce
Unstable Lives (ex - Low Life Expectancy)
Stable Communities (Slow, If Any Change)
Stable Lives (Ex - Long Life Exp)
Unstable Communities (Fast, Ever-Present Change)
Describe the Economic State of the World
Factory rooms must be ventilated & washed every two years (1802).
Children must be instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic during their 1st four years of work (1833).
Mill owners required to treat disease (1833).
Children under 9 unemployable (1833).
Wash factories every 14 months (1844).
Child’s ages to be verified by doctor (1844).
Machinery required to be fenced (1844).
British Factory Acts
The Luddites (1811 - 1817)
19th Century textile artisans who protested industrialization of textile industry.
Opposed by British Government.
Army suppression (1812 - 1814).
Public show trials (1813 - 1817).
Frame Breaking Act (1812)
- A continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment.
Organized labor outlawed as early as the 14th Century in England.
1799 - Combination Acts
outlawed the formation of trade unions.
- Unions active in England.
- Philanthropic Society organized in Manchester, England.
Relative Share of World Manufacturing Output (1750 - 1900)
Gov't Restrictions on Exporting Textile Technology
Why would higher wages for workers contribute to the beginning of industrialization?
British workers were paid the highest wages in the world.
Global Leaders in GDP (1700 - 1870)
Measured in 1990 $ (PPP)
: Angus Maddison, C
ontours of the World Economy, 1–2030 AD
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Great Britain? (Four Theories)