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Strands Project in Architecture
Transcript of Strands Project in Architecture
*Late Stone Age period (1200-600 BC)
*New Stone Age period (11.000-3.000 BC)
During the Greek Dark Ages the palaces were burned, and the roads and bridges and dams mostly fell apart. But at the end of the Dark Ages, with the beginning of the Iron Age and the Archaic period in Greece, we see a new type of building: the temple for the gods. These earliest temples are built in the Doric style. There are houses, but no more palaces. But roads and bridges and stone walls begin to be built again.*Greek Dark Ages period (12th century B.C) Doric Column The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. The greatest monument that was ever built in Greece was the Parthenon and it used these doric columns. Ionic Column The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands. Some of the best examples of temples that have ionic columns are Erechtheum, the temple of Athena at Nike and the temple of Apollo at Didyma. Corinthian Column The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves. An example of the Corinthian style used is the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae in Arcadia. The Parthenon is the temple of Athena, goddess of wisdom, on the Acropolis in Athens. It is believed that the Parthenon was bulit on 447-432 BCE. Facts About the Parthenon On the eastern pediment (the triangular area above the columns on the "front" and "back" of the temple) was a depiction of the birth of Athena. The western pediment showed Athena's battle with Poseidon for possession of the land of Attica. Friezes ran along all four sides of the temple, above the lines of columns. These showed, on the southern side the battle of the Lapiths and the Centaurs, on the east the battle of the gods and the giants, and on the west the battle of the Greeks and the Amazons. It is not known what was depicted on the northern side: it may have been scenes from the Trojan War. Facts About the Parthenon The five main instigators of the design and construction on the Parthenon were Pericles, Phidias, Kalamis, Ictinus and Calibrates. Pericles was the leading Athenian statesman at the time, Phidias and Kalamis were in charge of the design of the sculptures and decorations, and Ictinus and Calibrates were the main architects. Facts about the Parthenon The Parthenon metopes that were visible on the exterior of the temple were made in deep relief and surrounded the temple on all sides. Most Greek temples had few decorated metopes, but in the Parthenon all ninety-two metopes were decorated on all sides with scenes from Greek mythology. The temple was sacred to two aspects of the Greek goddess Athena, Athena Polios ("of the city") and Athena Parthenos ("young maiden"). The "on" ending means "place of", so "Parthenon" means "Place of the Parthenos". Ancient Greece Architecture Fun Facts Long before the construction of the Parthenon the site had been a sacred place of other cultures. The Parthenon was built to supplant the temples of the earlier cultures and to both experience and praise the character of the Greek goddess Athena. Ancient Greece Architecture Fun Facts The rectangular building (measured at the top step of its base to be 101.34 feet wide by 228.14 feet long) was constructed of brilliant white marble, surrounded by 46 great columns, roofed with tiles, and housed a nearly 40 foot tall statue of the goddess Athena. The statue, known as Athena Promachos, Athena the Champion, was made of wood, gold and ivory and could be seen from a distance of many miles. Ancient Greece Architecture Fun Facts The materials used to make the statue of Athena were ivory and gold.The statue of Athena Parthenos was created by Phidias and showed Athena fully armed with her spear and helmet.