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Marine Food Web
Juliette Perry-Dumarquezon 21 January 2014
Transcript of Marine Food Web
Seaweed can be found in medicine and even fertilizers. There are many different types of seaweed to be found around the world and they all show different adaptations to life in the water.
Seaweed has many adaptions:
It is adapted to living in coastal waters. It has small bubbles (or bladders) in its fronds that cause the fronds to float and hold the seaweed vertically in the water. This helps it to get as much photosynthesis as possible. It has strong, flexible fronds (large, well spaced leaves.) Seaweed has a holdfast ( see picture above,) instead of roots, which attach it to stones and other heavy objects which stops the plant from being washed away out to sea! Pilchards Zooplankton is a decomposer. It's also a producer. Zooplankton feeds on phytoplankton, other planktons, bactaterial waste and animal and plant remains. Blue and Baleen whales are the most popular Zooplankton predators. Zooplankton are detrivores and omnivores. All species of plankton have adaptations to be able to float in the water. Adaptions include: flat bodies, sideward spines, oil droplets, and floats filled with gases. The flat body and spines allow some species of plankton to resist sinking by increasing the surface area of their bodies while minusing the volume of their bodies. All other adaptations keep Zooplankton from sinking quickly to the bottom. Zooplankton also has adapted mechanisms to deter fish (their heaviest predator) including: transparent bodies, bright colors, bad tastes, and red coloring in deeper water. Grey mullet are decomposers, which means that they are also consumers. They eat plants, plankton, detritus (meaning feeds on dead,) and most mullet species. Grey mullet are eaten by King maackerel, blue runner and bigger fish.
Grey mullets are often called jumping or happy mullets because they leap out of the water and skip along its surface. Grey mullets are Carnivores. Grey mullet don't have many adaptions as it is quite an average fish. It does, however have gills so that it can breathe properly, a slimy, smooth surface so that it can swim/glide in the water. And it has a big mouth so that it can eat big prey. A Pilchard is not a decomposer, it's a consumer in the food chain. Pilchards are eaten by dolphins, sharks, game fish, kingfish, kingfisher and birds. They eat copepods, water fleas and tiny prawns.
Pilchards are a great source of vitamin d, protien and calcium.
Pilchards are also called, as we know them, Sardines. They have gills to extract oxygen from the water
They have a slimy coat to protect them from injury and pathogens.
They are streamlined to help them swim fast.
They are darker on top so that they are harder to be seen from above.
They are lighter on the bottom so that they are harder to be seen from below against the light above. go to 46 seconds ^ Grey mullet Phytoplankton Kina is a decomposer and a scavenger. They are consumers. They are eaten by sea otters, wolf eels, crayfish and snapper. Sea urchins mostly eat algae, sea sponges, seaweed, sea cucumber, or little plants or animals.' Urchin' is the old name for the round, spiky, hedgehog the sea urchin resembles. The sea urchin has many adaptations to make it easier for their specie to live in the ocean. The shells inside the skeleton of the specie is made up of packed plates which protect them from being damaged. The spines outside of their shell, are movable and help the sea urchin camouflage or protect itself from predators. Sea urchins have five teeth that they use to ingest algae and break down other foods they consume to survive. These five teeth grow all the way through the sea urchin’s life. On the outside of their body, they have hundreds of transparent tubes that helps them to stick to the bottom of the ocean or to move at a very slow pace. Their transparent tubes are much longer than the spines on their shells and they are also used by the sea urchin to trap food and help for he sea urchin to breathe. Kina/ Sea urchins Kingfish are decomposers that eat copepods, crabs, small fish, zooplankton, squid, crustaceans and sea snails. Kingfish don't have many predators, the most common one is humans. It is predicted that if humans keep on overfishing Kingfish, the species will appear on the NZ endangered list in less than 30 years. Kingfish are consumers in the food chain. They are carnivores. They use 'carangiform swimming,' a mode of swimming named after the family. It involves very little movement of the head but a lot of movement of the tail. Yellowtail Kingfish are often seen in groups as young fish. Small organs called neuromasts allow young fish to do their movements the same as one another. These organs running along the side of the body, are the lateral lines. The fish can tell which way to move and at what speed they should go. The lateral line therefore gives the fish a distant touch sense, to detect, and react to an object moving at some distance away in the water. Not only can the fish detect direction and speed of the object, but even the size as well. Kingfish Mussels Mussels are decomposers. They are also consumers. They are eaten by humans, sea stars, sea snails, some mammals that live in coastal waters, and mostly birds. Mussels eat plankton and microscopic sea creatures. They are omnivores. Mussels can live up to 50 years but are harvested at 28 months. The mussel's shell is made of two halves that protect it from predators and water coming out. They also have a special protein to attach themselves firmly to a structure. Snapper Snapper is a decomposer and a consumer. Snapper eat Plankton, pilchards/ sardines, shrimp, lady fish (A type of fish,) and Greenie.
Snapper are mostly eaten by humans, whales or bigger fish. Snapper are mostly carnivores, but can sometimes be onivores. Snapper all start out as females but before maturing sexually 50% of change sex. Slimy surface to help snapper to get out of small areas and to swim through the water with ease. A big powerful tail to attack prey with. Soft lips so that they can get out of hooks easier. Paddle crabs Paddle crabs eat plankton, jacks, sardines, shrimp, krill, detritus, shrill and crayfish. They are eaten by humans, snapper and dogfish. But since snapper and dogfish are being over-harvested, the paddle crab population has increased greatly. Paddle crabs are decomposers and consumers. The name decapod means 10 legs, and callinects sapidus means beautiful swimmer. Paddle crabs have many adaptions to survive in the ocean:
The rock-hard shell and the sharp claws the paddle crabs have are to defend themselves from predators. The paddles on their back legs is what makes them able to swim. They have eight walking legs which are on the backside of the crab’s body which make the crab walk either right or left. Kahawai (Otherwise, also called Arripis Trutta) is a consumer in the food chain that eats worms, fungi, plankton, bacteria, shrimp, krill, crayfish and detritus. Kahawai is mostly eaten by sharks, sea lions, ray, seals and sometimes humans. The Kahawai adaptions are that Kahawai have soft lips that can be ripped easily, making it easy to let go of the hook. Both the jaw and the teeth are hooked for holding prey still and then its prey is swallowed whole. They also have a very strong back so that the can tackle their prey, and keep a good hold. This large fish is a decomposer and a carnivore. Kahawai Humans Humans are decomposers and are also consumers. Humans don't have many predators that are a huge threat to the human race because most of our predators are endangered or over-hunted. Our predators are sharks, lions, and bears are our biggest threat. Humans eat grains, fruit, vegatables, meat, fish and dairy. Humans adapted from the apes. Humans have:
muscles and bones to catch prey, evade predators, and move around easier.
eyes to spot prey and notice predators.
lenses in rethe eyes to see close-up and faraway items.
feet to balance on, allowing running, jumping, and dancing possible
hands to type, write, hold food, attack enemies, etc.
eyebrows, eyelashes, fur, and hair to prevent blindness from blinding sunlight
a circulatory system to carry O2 and CO2 in and out of your body
a respiratory systems to make the circulatory system work
When humans evolved from apes, our spin straightened so that we could walk on two feet and not have to use our knuckles for balance, our knees also became stronger to hold all our weight, our jaw became more adapted to eating COOKED food instead of raw flesh, and our brain changed shape to fit so that it didn't chrush after our jaw became inner. Video that relates to many of these marine life creatures.
Thanks for watching
By Juliette Perry-Dumarquez
9BD Phytoplankton is not a decomposer. It is a producer. Phytoplankton is eaten by Zooplankton, sea stars, small fish, shrimp, jellyfish, whales and snails. Phytoplankton makes its own food. It is a plant, not a species. Phytoplankton rely's on minerals found in the water. During photosynthesis phytoplankton removes carbon dioxide from the water. Phytoplankton is a photosynthetic autotroph. Some adaptions are:
they are light weight and invisble - their atoms are made of silica which is a lightweight, camouflageable material they use to disguise themselves against predators.
Because of their lightweight outer body, they can stand UVA/UVB rays. and and and and