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The University of St Andrews Lean Journey

from the University of St Andrews Lean Team

Lean Team

on 27 April 2014

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Transcript of The University of St Andrews Lean Journey

The University of St Andrews Lean Journey
Applying Lean?
The right environment
Getting staff on board
Continuous Improvement
Respect for People
Student Status Letters
Estates Job Tracking
Finance Accounts Payable
168 Properties
Estates Overview:
Where we are at now?
If you do what you've always done,
you'll get what you've always got!
Project Team issues:
Project Outcomes
PC and Printer provision/access resolved during Lean project
Everyone knows what is going on
Immediate saving of 4.5 FTE (£135,000) - And, NO job losses
Estates effectively get 6 additional tradesmen - At NO cost
190 members of staff

To volunteer or not?

General concern of buy-in from peers

Impact on staffing levels (Is this just a way to cut jobs?)

Timesheets – account for 36.25 hpw - why do we need them?

Lack of follow through from Management
467 Emergency call out requests
16,269 Maintenance requests in 2010
Annual Estates Budget inc. utilities £10m
Buildings from 599 years to less than 1 year old
Gross area 3.2m sq ft (1.2m sq ft listed)
Library Cataloguing
Biology examination setting process
Key objective:

Reduce time taken to log invoices on finance system

Key outcomes:

1. All invoices logged within 24 hours of receipt rather than batched to meet weekly schedule
2. Dramatic reduction in inquiries from suppliers, Schools and Units about unpaid invoices
3. Happy suppliers, Schools and Units
4. Fewer payment runs (data told us we were running 2.3 per week instead of 1 per week!)
5. Savings of 1 staff member's time as no longer required to sort and batch invoices or answer the same volume of calls or emails (£26,000 per year).
Key objective:

Improve Junior Honours examination setting process

Key outcomes:

1. Exam setting process reduced from 32 to 12 steps
2. Emphasis on getting it right first time, with a significant reduction is checking of question validity, grammar, model answers, etc.
3. Clear instructions provided to all staff
4. University deadlines met
5. Time freed across School for all staff to do other value-adding work
Jobs sourced and closed electronically from next working day
Elimination of paper time sheets from next working day
Process time down from over 4 hours to 21 minutes
Elapsed time reduced from 44 to 14 days (Receipt to closing of job)
From PCs to mobile devices predicted to save further 1.5 FTE (£45,000)
Key objective:

Reduce time taken to process letters confirming that students are enrolled at the University (required by e.g. banks, local Council)

Key outcomes:

1. Letters produced by 1 staff member within 2 minutes of being requested, rather than being passed through several hands and ready for collection by students in 7 to 10 working days
2. Process time reduced from 31 to 2 minutes
3. Much happier students
4. Saving of 0.5 fte (£13,000 per year)
We needed to get more efficient and effective (and we still do)
Everything can and must get better
It is everyone's job to improve
Looking for a means of managing change that suited the University's ethos
The early years
Why we adopted Lean
First International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education, Glasgow, Scotland, 24-25 June 2013 Hosted by the Centre for Research in Six Sigma and Process Excellence (CRISSPE), University of Strathclyde
Process Mapping
Current State
Future State
Nominal Group Technique
Runners, Repeaters, Strangers
Task Matrix
Ease/Benefits Prioritisation
Staff Secondments

St Andrews
St Andrews?
Okay, so?

Oldest in Scotland and the third oldest in the English-speaking world

University status conferred 28 August 1413 by papal bull of Pope Benedict XIII

Consistently ranked in the top ten universities in the UK, usually in the top five

In 1773, the university had fewer than 100 pupils, and was in Samuel Johnson's opinion in a steady decline … "pining in decay and struggling for life"

Lecture theatres, labs, libraries, student residences, etc. throughout the town

In term time over a third of the town's population is either a staff member or student of the University

Greek motto AIEN ARISTEUEIN means

Lots and lots and lots of change

'Ever to be the best'
Why do anything?
Then what happened?
Other stuff
7,582 students
6,071 undergraduates
1,511 postgraduates
80.1% UG
10.1% PGT and 9.8% PGR
25.5% Scotland 26.3% Rest of UK
14.5% EU
15.6% USA
Over 90% of students satisfied with the quality of the course

Around 98% of students successfully continue in their studies

Consistently ranked amongst the top mainstream, multi-faculty universities in the UK

94% of research is internationally recognised; 60% is world leading or internationally excellent
Back in 2005 ...

The Director of Business Improvements attends a Best Practice Club meeting at which National Savings and Investment deliver a presentation about Lean

"Hmmm, this approach could work for St Andrews"

The Quaestor and Factor agreed

There were no specific issue to address
On site for 3 months

Package of consultancy 150 person days

Week long training for 6 staff

Led projects, RIEs

'Train the trainer'

Now critical friends

Five day Rapid Improvement Events

Late 2006 - 'Volunteers' come forward

Early 2007 - aggressive, engage or else approach. Didn’t work. Short on 'respect for people'

Late 2007 - soft approach, add value, sell Lean

Early to mid 2008 - gaining traction

Always - if pointed at problem areas, Lean is seen as remedial

Remove fear - no job losses and not about money
Start where you can make a difference, bite sized, quick win
Align with capacity to deliver outcomes - IT
Lean budget
Benchmarking has limitations
Have a process for delivering Lean projects
Put stuff on your dedicated webpages

Gemba visits
External site visits
Our place
Lean Team
And Lean Champions spreading the word
What works for us?
Head of Lean
University of St Andrews
Westburn Lane
St Andrews
KY16 9TS

01334 461780
Mark Robinson

What is on board?
'Who is complaining?'
What people have said ...
On Board?

Actively accepting the need for change and actively engaging in the change process
Now worked with every business unit and all Schools
Still optional
Working on
Taking action
The 'No time' conversation
Quad of Aims
Current State Mapping
'If you can see it,
you can fix it'
Ideas Generation
Action List
Interim State - Future State
They say "Hmmm, yes, it is a good idea that we do this, its really important, but there's exams, ... then holidays, then matriculation, and then, ... well, last year there was lots of snow, oh, Christmas of course, then the students are back, um, um, Fred is going away, ....".

We say "So, no time is a good time then?"

They say "Yes, you're right"

We say "So, if this is as important as you say,
and no time is a good time,
we may as well do it now"

They say "Oh, yes, yes, you're right"
Lean Thinking for Managers
Lean Tools for Managers
Managing Change
Introduction to Project Management
Passport to Environmental Excellence
Lean: The 8 Wastes and How to Reduce Them
Passport to Administrative Excellence
Lean Problem Solving for Administrators
Training specifically for project team members
Passport to Management Excellence
Senior Manager Sponsorship
Line Manager commitment
Senior Management championship
Action orientated
skilled people
Critical Success Factors for Lean in Universities
Some more numbers
City University London
Glasgow School of Art
University of Edinburgh
University of Lincoln
University of Sheffield
The British School at Rome
The British Army (51 (Scottish) Brigade)
The Scottish Parliament
Scottish Autism
External Work
36 five-day rapid improvement events
10 four-day rapid improvement events
17 three-day rapid improvement events
Numerous smaller scale change events
Lean works in HE
Why Lean?
Student Summer Interns
All Staff
and Students
Where do we sit?
Some Lessons
Key objective:

Eliminate backlog of uncatalogued books and DVDs

Key outcomes:

1. Hard copy book cataloguing time reduced from 4 months to 2 days
2. DVD cataloguing time down from 2 years to 2 days
3. Shelves freed for use elsewhere
4. More natural light entering work areas
5. Significant reduction of stress among staff
6. Dramatically increased Teamwork within cataloguing team
7. Happy students
Rapid Improvement Events
Other improvement activity
Lean Training and awareness
Programme and Project Prioritisation Group
Small group from one Unit, and/or across a number of Units
Grow base of "Leaners"
Ultimately everyone?
Tried and Tested RIE Process
Rapid Improvement Events
Some more Projects
Rapid Improvement Events
Sounding board
External Work
In the University
Reason for being
Become the best it can be

Focus on Teaching and Research (so we focus on central support units)

Develop a culture of continuous improvement and respect for people
To help the University:
Paper Plane Game
Week 2
Move all items between production points
Production 1
Fold each piece of paper in half along the long side
Production 2
Fold the two corners on one short edge to the centre fold
Production 3
Fold the two wings in to the centre line again
Production 4
Fold the wings back on themselves, and apply branding to the plane
Receive planes, ensure quality is sufficient
Motivate staff to produce the maximum number of planes
Record statistics, and keep us to time
St Andrews Aeronautics
We make paper planes
Each plane costs us £1m to make, but we sell each plane for £2m
We work in "weeks" of 10 minutes, each "day" being 2 minutes long
Building planes is a highly specialised job
Week 1 Statistics
Number of planes:
delivered to Customer
rejected by Customer
accepted by Customer
in progress
Number of people involved in the process
Number of planes produced per person
Time to complete 1 plane
Week 1 Review and Planning
How would you design a new process to be as slick as possible?

Aim for two changes
Don't forget that for the purposes of the exercise no one person is trained in all aspects of plane construction
Week 1
Produce as many planes as
you can in one week!
Week 1
Week 2 Statistics
Number of planes:
delivered to Customer
rejected by Customer
accepted by Customer
in progress
Number of people involved in the process
Number of planes produced per person
Time to complete 1 plane
Week 2
Produce as many planes as you can in one week!
Week 2 Review and Planning
How can the process be further improved?
What similarities are there
between the Paper Plane Game and your experience of University processes?
So, what will we do about it?
The Plane
Maximise Value
Non-Value Adding
but necessary
8 Wastes
As the customer sees it
Only do that which adds value for the customer
Understand all work as a process
Create smooth flow
Respond to Pull
Give your customer what they need
When they need it
Not what, or when, is convenient to you
Aim for
Exam diet ... or continuous assessment?
Expenses as you go ... or monthly?
Nothing happens in isolation (or shouldn't!)
Does the left hand know what the right hand is doing?
Moving items
Holding items
Moving people
Delaying people or items
Creating too many items
Complexity in creating items
Errors or mistakes
Misused human potential
Posting invoices to various departments for signoff
Cupboards full of unused prospectuses
Having to walk across town to sign a form
Things being held up because the office is closed for lunch
It's cheaper to get 3000 business cards ...
Producing a leatherbound report when one side of a4 would suffice
Decimal point misread in expenses claim
People not bringing their knowledge and skills to the job appropriately
5 Principles
Not an artificial target
Not 'that will do'
Not 'that's what others are doing'
Respect for People
Fundamentally, it's all about how people behave
Continuous Improvement
People are our most powerful asset
2 Fundamentals
1. Continuous Improvement
2. Respect for People
They know what works and what needs improvement
Standing still means going backwards
The internal and external environments are always changing
Everything can and must get better
Involve staff at all levels in decision making
The right people continuously searching for the simplest and smoothest process in order to meet customer needs perfectly
Lean Team!
First steps ...
Scottish Funding Council

Do it ourselves

Championed by the Quaestor and Factor
Internal advertisement for three secondments (many applied, interviewed six)

Called for tenders via Procurement Office

Two organisations given a task to find out and present what was possible

Quaestor and Factor tells University that no one would lose job
Next steps ...
Bourton Group
University of St Andrews Timeline
Produced for the 2013 edition of the Alumnus Chronicle.
Provides an institutional overview of priority and allocation of resource concerning change proposals and projects
Identify and prioritise proposals

Prioritise resources to approved projects

Monitor the implementation of projects

Evaluate project outcomes
Estates can start to move from reactive to proactive maintenance
Next stage
Personal favourites ...
Safe environment:

We are where we are
No one is to blame
No idea is a bad idea

Understanding the change process

Understanding what Lean is about

Establishing good working relationships
The Team:

Doing the work

Owning the outcome

Delivering excellent results
Providing e.g.

So, are staff applying Lean to other areas of their work?
... but it ain't easy!

"Lean has made a difference to how we work, things are better now."

"We've acheived more in the past day and a half than in the five years I've been here!"

"It's changed my mentality; that things can change here for the better"

"It really started to make me think about how I am going about my working life, doing various jobs/tasks and how I could do them better!"

"I've seen that Lean is bringing the University closer together. People talk to each other now in a way they didn't before."

"The single most effective day's work I have ever seen... the day after it was finished we got exactly what was needed; when I had thought the chances of getting there were zero."

"It was a very positive experience for ..."

"I wouldn't change it (the Lean Process) - it worked really well"
Staff tell us nice things ...
Senior Management championship
Stories about
successful outcomes
Staff tell other people nice things ...
“We really felt that the guys from the Lean team were behind us all the time – 100%. Very supportive, very enthusiastic. [...] They never really left until it was up and running fully

“It encouraged us all to use our initiative, to have new ideas and not being frightened to say what our ideas are.”

“These Lean events provide you with a truly cross-functional and comprehensive understanding of the process.”

“Lean raises one question: Why don't we try to be the best that we can? That means also not worrying about what other people are doing. Not worrying about benchmarks.”
Nice things mean what, exactly?

Staff new to Lean not showing signs of 'Lean Fright' as was sometimes the case in our early years

Staff turning up to Scoping and/or Planning meetings with a clear project plan

Staff 'borrowing' our room, to run their own mini Lean projects, without asking us to facilitate

Staff telling us after the fact that they have run their own Lean project

Hearing that ex staff from St Andrews have been promoting Lean at their new institutions

Observations ...
So, what does this mean?
Full transcript