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Transcript of Brain imaging
A closer look
Using injury to the brain as a way to
structure and function
MEASURE BRAIN ACTIVITY ONLY! Not structure
EEG or electroencephlagram
CAT or CT Scan
Patients DRINK radioactive glucose and then scans show BRAIN metabolizing the glucose
PET or positron emission tomography
Magnetic fields and radio waves record images:
THESE Are the MOST DETAILED
MRI or magnetic resonance imaging
fMRI functional MRI
Documents "electric" signals from scalp or brain (neurons)
Brain with evidence of concussion, bleeding/swelling: Sometimes concussions are FUNCTION problems one cannot see on a CT CAT scan
Can reveal tumors, stroke, bleeding; better visual of hard-tissue (bone), but can reveal contrast in soft tissue/brain
CT scan (left) vs. MRI (right) of head injury after car accident
WARNING: VIDEO HAS GRAPHIC CONTENT
Correlation does not mean causation
Areas of the brain are "associated"
with certain functions
"depending on...neurotransmitters...[there] may actually be ...inhibit[tion] rather than excit[tion] (Satel and Lilienfeld, 2013).
Could there be false positives?
Dead salmon shown photos in
fMRI - p < 0.001 !!!!
Contralateral movement of hand
Ipsilateral cerebellum activity:
THIS IS MIKE HAMILTON'S BRAIN -
AP Psychology teacher Hopkinton
WARNING! The misconception here is to believe there is a brain. This ONLY shows radioactive metabolic activity. The anatomy of brain is NOT shown.
Warning: Another misconception is to see "holes" or missing brain matter where there is little/no activity. Remember, there is no brain structure shown.
with an area
View the greater detail of MRI!
CAT does a better job on hard tissue/bone.
MEG or magnetoencephalography
As neurons fire electric signals, the MEG picks up on changes in the magnetic field. The scans record neuron signals millisecond-by-millisecond (far superior to an EEG).
This is a DIRECT measurement of neuronal activity!
When paired with an MRI, the MEG can show the timing of neurons and spatial location. **Used for pre-operative brain mapping prior to surgery and for epilepsy patients
This is an INDIRECT way of measuring brain activity. As the subject moves or focuses attention on stimulus, the MRI lightens in color - this activity is actually changes in blood flow.
are closer to
scalp and more
picking up signals.
In the future-
If placed in bike
roam room when
& expensive equipment.
Sensors must be kept
very cold -269 degrees
Celsius ( -452 degrees F)
Must remain still.