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Senior Project: The United States, Slavery, and Chocolate

CHILD LABOR IN THE COCOA PROCESSING AND CULTIVATING INDUSTRY
by

Ashley McQuaid

on 24 April 2013

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Transcript of Senior Project: The United States, Slavery, and Chocolate

The U.S., Slavery and Chocolate The Chocolate Industry in the U.S. We all Know Americans Love Chocolate Thesis: The U.S. Should Not Do Business With Companies Who are not Taking Steps to End Slave Labor Cocoa Plantations of the World South America Where do they come from? trafficked from all around Africa
poor areas
go to make money
sent by parents
decide to go on their own
kidnapped Trafficking Process The Children ages 11-16 years old
64% younger than 14
61% boys
39%girls What do these 3 things have in common? The Cocoa Bean in fact we buy more and more of it every year Asia Cameroon
4% Nigeria
7% Ghana
15% Ivory Coast
43% Living Conditions malnourishment cramped, uncomfortable housing long hours, physical abuse Working Conditions Harvesting Cocoa Pods Spraying Pesticides Slicing Open Pods Labor Practices in West Africa The Cost Physically & Emotionally Chocolate Companies That Utilize Slave Labor: How do they get away with this? Secret Backroads Militia Why Slave Labor? Why not Fair Trade? 70% reduction of slave labor
Labor Department pledged $10 million
Chocolate Companies pledged $7 million Harkin Engel Protocol(2001): Progress International Labor Rights Fund made complaint about lack of progress "The government has taken measures. It has arrested some slave brokers. They are very sensitive about this, but if you probe you realize it's still a problem"
-Marx-Villaire Aristicle(Research Economist) By 2010 Hershey's report still failed to show marked improvement in labor practices New Plan (Application): Fair Trade Cocoa Act: Bibliography Ackerman, Tori. “Activists Protest Hershey in Times Square Calling on Chocolate Giant to Stop Using Child Labor.” Daily News 8 June 2011: Web.

Altman, Linda. Human Rights: Issues For a New Millennium. New Jersey: Enslow Publishers Inc., 2002. Print.

Becker, Elizabeth. “U.S. Agency to Be Cited in Suit About Trade and Child Labor.” The New York Times., The New York Times Company, 29 May, 2003. Web. n.d. <nytimes.com>.

Do Children Have Rights. Michigan: Greenhaven Press, 2006. Print.

Escobedo, Tricia. “The Human Cost of Chocolate.”, CNN. Turner Broadcasting System., 19 April. 2013. Web. 16 January 2012. <cnn.com> Goode, Stephen. The Foreign Policy Debate. New York: A Grolier Company, 1984. Print.

Hardy, Quentin. “Global Slavery By the Numbers.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 6 March 2013. Web. 19 April 2013. <nytimes.com/2013/03/06/global- slavery-by-the-numbers/>.

Jackson, Maurice. “Emancipation Day 2012:More Meaningful than Ever.” Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 14 April 2012. Web. 19 April 2013. <washingtonpost.com>.

Kronenwetter, Michael. Taking a Stand Against Human Rights Abuses. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990. Print.

Mull, L.D., & Kirkhorn, S.R. “Public Health Rep.” Child Labor in Ghana cocoa production: focus upon agricultural tasks, ergonomic exposures, and associated injuries and illnesses (2005): pp. 649-55. Web. Nov 2005. Off, Carol . Bitter Chocolate: The dark side of the world’s most Seductive sweet. New York: The New Press, 2008. Print

Offices of Senator Tom Harkin. Representative Eliot Engel. The United States Department of Labor. The Government of Cote d’Ivoire. The Ghana Ministry on Employment and Social Welfare. The International Chocolate and Cocoa Industry. Annual Report of The Child Labor Cocoa Coordination Group. Washington. 2012. Print.

Roosevelt, M. “Guilt Free Valentines.” Time. Time Inc., 16 Aug. 2002. Web. 23 Feb 2013.

Schoenberger, Karl. Levi’s children: Coming to terms with human rights in the Global Marketplace. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000. Print.

Suellentrop, Chris. “The End of Guilt Free Chocolate.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 14 Feb. 2007. Web. 19 April 2013. <nytimes.com>. Who is to blame? The following law applies to all chocolate companies who are found by the International Labor Organization to utilize slave labor.

All companies will be put on probation and will be periodically investigated by the International Labor Organization.
They will be allowed to continue business in the United States under the following conditions: They must comply with the Harkin-Engel Protocol.
They must send investigators to suspicious plantations to implement child labor policies.
They must pay enough money to intermediaries to hire workers on plantations
They must begin documenting plantation workers and requesting information from intermediaries and plantation owners.
Their reports must show a decrease in utilization of child labor by at least 5% annually. If a company fails to meet the above requirements all sale of said company's products in the United States will be prohibited until standards can be met. Escobedo, Tricia. “The Human Cost of Chocolate.”, CNN. Turner Broadcasting System., 19 April. 2013. Web. 16 January 2012. <cnn.com>. Schoenberger, Karl. Levi’s children: Coming to terms with human rights in the Global Marketplace. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000. Print. Escobedo, Tricia. “The Human Cost of Chocolate.”, CNN. Turner Broadcasting System., 19 April. 2013. Web. 16 January 2012. <cnn.com>. Off, Carol . Bitter Chocolate: The dark side of the World’s most Seductive sweet. New York: The New Press, 2008. Print. Suellentrop, Chris. “The End of Guilt Free Chocolate.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 14 Feb. 2007. Web. 19 April 2013. <cnn.com>. Off, Carol . Bitter Chocolate: The dark side of the world’s most Seductive sweet. New York: The New Press, 2008. Print. Off, Carol . Bitter Chocolate: The dark side of the world’s most Seductive sweet. New York: The New Press, 2008. Print. Offices of Senator Tom Harkin. Representative Eliot Engel. The United States Department of Labor. The Government of Cote d’Ivoire. The Ghana Ministry on Employment and Social Welfare. The International Chocolate and Cocoa Industry. Annual Report of The Child Labor Cocoa Coordination Group. Washington. 2012. Print. Kronenwetter, Michael. Taking a Stand Against Human Rights Abuses. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990. Print. Off, Carol . Bitter Chocolate: The dark side of the world’s most Seductive sweet. New York: The New Press, 2008. Print. Schoenberger, Karl. Levi’s children: Coming to terms with human rights in the Global Marketplace. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000. Print. Ackerman, Tori. “Activists Protest Hershey in Times Square Calling on Chocolate Giant to Stop Using Child Labor.” Daily News 8 June 2011: Web. Suellentrop, Chris. “The End of Guilt Free Chocolate.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 14 Feb. 2007. Web. 19 April 2013. <nytimes.com>. Offices of Senator Tom Harkin. Representative Eliot Engel. The United States Department of Labor. The Government of Cote d’Ivoire. The Ghana Ministry on Employment and Social Welfare. The International Chocolate and Cocoa Industry. Annual Report of The Child Labor Cocoa Coordination Group. Washington. 2012. Print. Offices of Senator Tom Harkin. Representative Eliot Engel. The United States Department of Labor. The Government of Cote d’Ivoire. The Ghana Ministry on Employment and Social Welfare. The International Chocolate and Cocoa Industry. Annual Report of The Child Labor Cocoa Coordination Group. Washington. 2012. Print. farmers? Government? Intermediaries? Chocolate Companies? Awareness A Taste of Slavery: Two boys, Two Years, No Pay
By Sudarsan Raghavan
Knight Ridder Newspapers What You Can Do Buy Fair trade chocolate Ben and Jerry's
Trader Joe's
Whole Foods
Newman's Own Organics Roosevelt, M. “Guilt Free Valentines.” Time. Time Inc., 16 Aug. 2002. Web. 23 Feb 2013.
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