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Energy Balance

BTEC L3 Sport SN
by

Jade Easton

on 18 April 2013

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Transcript of Energy Balance

Energy Balance
Task 2 Support
Learning outcomes: Understand energy intake & expenditure in sports performance What is energy balance? “Energy balance” is the relationship between “energy in” (food calories taken into the body through food and drink) and “energy out” (calories being used in the body for our daily energy requirements). When it comes to “energy out,” the body’s energy needs include the amount of energy required for maintenance at rest, physical activity and movement, and for food digestion, absorption, and transport. Why energy balance is so important!

There’s a lot more to energy balance than a change in body weight.
Energy balance also has to do with what’s going on in your cells. When you’re in a positive energy balance (more in than out) and when you’re in a negative energy balance (more out than in), everything from your metabolism, to your hormonal balance, to your mood is impacted. Individual task:
How is EB impacted?
List as many factors for a Sports Performer! Negative energy balance.... What is this? A severe negative energy balance can lead to a decline in metabolism, decreases in bone mass, reductions in thyroid hormones, reductions in testosterone levels, an inability to concentrate, and a reduction in physical performance.

Yet a negative energy balance does lead to weight loss. The body detects an energy “deficit” and fat reserves are called upon to make up the difference.

The body doesn’t know the difference between a strict diet monitored by a physician at a Beverly Hills spa and simply running out of food in a poor African village. The body just knows it isn’t getting enough energy, so it will begin to slow down (or shut down) all “non-survival” functions. Positive energy balance Overfeeding (and/or under exercising) has its own ramifications not only in terms of weight gain but in terms of health and cellular fitness.
With too much overfeeding, plaques can build up in arteries, the blood pressure and cholesterol in our body can increase, we can become insulin resistant and suffer from diabetes, we can increase our risk for certain cancers, and so on.
The relationship between the amount of Calories we eat in the diet and the amount of energy we use in the body determines our body weight and overall health.
The body is highly adaptable to a variety of energy intakes/outputs. It must be adaptable in order to survive. Therefore, mechanisms are in place to ensure stable energy transfer regardless of whether energy imbalances exist.

Thinking of the Sport performer and physiology what impact would this have on performance? Jot down some thoughts for later! Factors that affect energy in
•Calorie intake
•Energy digested and absorbed (90-99%) Factors that affect energy out

Work
•Physical work (exercise and activity)
Heat
•Heat produced with physical work
•Heat produced via the thermic effect of food (TEF)
•Heat produced by resting metabolism
•Heat produced: adipose creation
•Heat produced: adipose thermoregulation
Storage
•Efficiency of work
•Efficiency of food metabolism
•Energy stored in adipose tissue How to create a negative energy balance!
•Build muscle with weight training (about 5 hours of total exercise each week) and proper nutrition
•Create muscle damage with intense weight training
•Maximize post workout energy expenditure by using high intensity exercise
•Regular program change to force new stimuli and adaptations
•Boost non-exercise physical activity
•Increase thermic effect of feeding by increasing unprocessed food intake
•Eat at regular intervals throughout the day
•Eat lean protein at regular intervals throughout the day
•Eat vegetables and/or fruit at regular intervals
•Incorporate omega-3 fats
•Incorporate multiple exercise modes
•Stay involved with “life” outside of exercise and nutrition
•Sleep 7-9 hours each night
•Don’t engage in extreme diets for risk of long-term overcompensation
•Stay consistent with habits
•Ignore food advertising How to create a positive energy balance
•Build muscle with weight training (at least 4 hours of intense exercise per week) and proper nutrition
•Create muscle damage with intense weight training
•Minimize other forms of exercise (other than high intensity and resistance training)
•Limit excessive non-exercise physical activity
•Try consuming more shakes and liquids with calories
•Build in energy dense foods that don’t cause rapid satiety (nut butters, nuts, trail mix, oils, etc.)
•Eat at regular intervals throughout the day
•Incorporate additional omega-3 fats
•Take advantage of pre-workout nutrition, with plenty of nutrients consumed before, during, and after exercise
•Sleep 7-9 hours per night
•Stay consistent with habits Activity: Paired 10 minutes

Choose two different sports! e.g. footballer & gymnast

Describe the impact a negative & positive energy balance could have on performance.
List your findings to share with others.... Learning check:
Negative or positive energy balance needed for this athlete? What would be the impact of a negative energy balance on a female endurance athlete? Think of theory from Physiology of fitness?
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