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lyn jang

on 12 May 2016

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Transcript of REALISM AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE: Power-Based Solutions

Power-Based Solutions

Realism and Global Governance
Power-Based Solutions
"Failures of the United Nations": prominent agent of Exerting Global Governance
US-Latin America and fight against
drug trafficking
Realism and Global Governance
El Salvador
The fight against drug trafficking in Central America

perfect example of

realist power politics
Discussion Question

Why are realists skeptical about the promotion of global governance as a new approach to global issues?
Outline of the Presentation
Part I: Introduction to this week theme
Discussion Question
Realism and Global Governance
Part II: Practical applications (case studies)
Case 1: War against drug trafficking
Case 2: UN Failure
Case 3: Doha Round disappointment
Case 4: Territorial disputes
Part III: Conclusion and Wrap Up
Part IV: Discussion and open forum
Practical applications
(case studies)
Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (
successor of the Rio Group and the Latin American and Caribbean Summit on Integration and Development (CALC)
* deepen Latin American integration
* reduce United States overwhelming influence on Latin America's politics and economics
Organization of American States (OAS)
established in order to achieve among its member states
"an order of peace and justice, to promote their solidarity, to strengthen their collaboration, and to defend their sovereignty, their territorial integrity, and their independence."
democracy, human rights,
security, and development
CELAC and OAS without the US and Canada
fail to make a final decision on any issue
Realists are skeptical with Global Governance because it only works when problems are not related to security issues
exemplar of a international organization
Chechen Republic
United Nations = Failure in Rwanda's Genocide Case
failure to provide adequate response to the crisis
Presentation by
formal institutions that enjoy national sovereignty, possess a monopoly over a particular territory, and are not answerable to an external authority
(Gilpin, 2003)

World or Global Government:
the idea of all humankind united under one common political authority. Arguably, it has not existed so far in human history, yet proposals for a unified global political authority have existed since ancient times
(Lu, 2012)
the different ways that organizations, institutions, businesses, and governments manage their affairs. Governance is the act of governing, and thus involves the application of laws and regulations, but also of customs, ethical standards and norms .
Global governance:
the way in which global affairs are managed. As there is no global government, global governance typically involves a range of actors including states, as well as regional and international organizations. However, a single organization may nominally be given the lead role on an issue, for example the World Trade Organization in world trade affairs. Thus global governance is thought to be an international process of consensus-forming which generates guidelines and agreements that affect national governments and international corporations.
* definition by World Health Organization
GG one of the ultimate expression of power and its structural centrality to global politics
*egoistic or corrupted human nature
*logic of international anarchy
"Global Governance is infeasible as a solution to global problems because of the unsurpassable difficulties of establishing 'authoritative hierarchies' at the global or international level"
Realism and Global Governance
There is no case related to global governance that works in the absence of a big leader!
Doha Round
Main Objectives & Problems
*Market Access in:
Agriculture (most important)
Non-Agricultural manufactures
*Main negotiators:
1. U.S.
2. EU
3. Brazil, India, China
Causes of Failure
Poor Countries:

press for more concessions from rich countries

Rich Countries:

refuse to take the political risk of crossing powerful interest groups, especially farmers, without something in return

Main reason:

U.S. refuse to reduce or exempt tariff and cancel the high farm subsidies
Doha Round and the Realistic Approach
International Economic Structure
*Other countries--Subsidiaries/Managed Objects
Essence of global multilateral trading system: Maintain hegemony

Premise for other countries' gain: U.S. gains relative profit advantage
South China Sea Territorial disputes
reserves of oil and natural gas
productive area for world's commercial fishing
one of the busiest areas of commercial shipping traffic
extension of continental shelf
Historical basis

International Law (UNCLOS)

Continental shelf principle
Arguments used by the claimant countries
"The Parties concerned undertake to
resolve their territorial and jurisdictional disputes by peaceful means
, without resorting to the threat or use of force, through friendly consultations and negotiations by sovereign states directly concerned,
in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
" (Section 4)

resolution of the dispute is going no where
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which came into effect on 16 November 1994, resulted in more intense territorial disputes between the parties rather than help resolve the disputes
UN initiated law
China-Philippine case
Philippines: case at the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague
China: oppose international arbitration over territorial issues
prefer “direct negotiations with countries concerned”
United States stance in the territorial disputes
Secretary Clinton:

"freedom of navigation and respect of international law"
is a matter of national interest to the US

Admiral Jonathan Greenert:

"US will come to the aid of the Philippines in the event of any conflict with China over disputed waters in the South China Sea"
Global Governance cannot solve problems if it is against the fundamental interest of the hegemonic power
Global Governance works relatively well on second order issues but not on security, military and territorial issues
Understanding International Cooperation

Globalization and Governance

Gilpin, Robert, "A Realist Perspective on International Governance," in David Held and Anthony McGrew (eds.),
Governing Globalization: Power, Authority and Global Governance
(Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003).

Lu, Catherine, "World Government" (Stanford: 2012). Accessed last November 1, 2014 at 11:50pm. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/world-government/.

Shaffer, Gregory, "Power, Governance, and the WTO: A Comparative Institutional Approach," in Michael Barnett and Raymond Duvall (eds.),
Power in Global Governance
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

Sterling-Folker, Jennifer, "Realist Global Governance: Revisiting cave! hic dragones and beyond," in Alice D. Ba and Matthew J. Hoffman (eds.),
Global Governance: Contending Perspectives on Coherence, Contestation and World Order
(Abingdon: Routledge, 2005). pp. 23-24.

Disclaimer: Presenters do not claim any rights to the photos used in the presentation. All rights and credits goes to photo owners and/or respective organizations.
- Lu 2012 quoting Krasner
Will Global Governance ever materialize as an institutional reality????
On the other hand GG works on...
* Millennium Development Goals
flourish according to the predictions of liberalist and constructivist
work because super powers support it, not just because US wants it
Matters of secondary priorities
(second order issues)
Understanding International Cooperation:
Globalization and Governance Class
November 6, 2014

Central American nations do not have the financial capability therefore do not have the motivation to wage this war against drug trafficking but the
United States is leading the war
so everybody is dragged to fight this
production and transportation of illegal drugs
Castillo, Miguel
Formuli, Hamid
Shishkhanov, Timur
Jin, Chun Yuan
Vásquez, Mirna
Callanta, Maria Lynette
Professor Kim Taekyoon's
UN response to Soviet Invasion in Afghanistan (Condemning! Is it enough?)
December 25, 1979: Soviet forces entered Afghanistan
1.5 million
civilian deaths
5–10 million
Refugees (1/3 of Population)
2 million
1.2 million
3 million
maimed or wounded
chemical weapons attacks caused 3000 deaths (CIA report)
General Assembly Condemned
Foreign ministers from OIC adopted a resolution which condemned the Soviet intervention
Early in 1980, the Security Council met to consider a response to the Soviet intervention, but a draft resolution condemning it was not passed, due to the negative vote of the USSR.
Srebrenica Massacre
worst crime on European soil since the WWII
July 1995: genocidal  killing of more than 8,000 Bosniaks, by units of the Army of Republika Srpska
In Bosnia, the U.N. declared safe areas but did nothing to secure them, letting the Serbs slaughter thousands in Srebrenica.
The organization's meddling was worse than useless: its blue-helmets troops were used as hostages by the Serbs to deter a military response from the West.
Genocide in Rwanda
Following Civil War (early 1990s), Rising ethnic tensions between Hutu and the Tutsis.
1993: UN peacekeeping forces entered but it was not fully authorized
January 1994: a cable was sent to the UN HQ (threat of genocide by Hutus on Tutsis).
Notice was largely ignored. US was largely unwilling to help in any intervention.
Close to one million Rwandans were killed (Up to 20% of Population) in the genocide in just 100 days
Insufficient resources
unclear directions (even not capable of self-defense)
waited and thought a political process could still be achieved even when thousands of ethnic populations were being slaughtered. 
completely failed to prevent a genocide of an ethnic population, something which it was specifically set up to do

Lack of National Interests and political will led to the failure of the Security Council, which has responsibility for international peace and security

failure to prevent and to provide adequate responses to crisis
Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea
USA-Latin America drug trafficking
* Drugs and security: long history in the United States
*The geographical position of Central America.
*Central American Integration System (SICA) security model for the region.
*Major threats, drug trafficking, illicit arms trafficking, corruption, terrorism and violence.
Place of the drug trafficking on the agenda of regional political bodies.
* Illicit drugs a threat to national security (1973, Richard Nixon)

* Geopolitics over drugs
* Pretext of fighting drug trafficking?
* Military invasion of Panama (1989) "Sovereignty"
(Article 21 Charter of OAS)
Global Governance only works, ONLY when those issues are not considered by the greatest player as important (security issues)
Srebrenica massacre memorial grave stones
A pile of more than 16,000 shoes, each pair representing a victim of the 1995 Srebrenica massacre
United Nations as a form of Global Governance
utopian thinking
utterly impractical solution for human political organization
International governance
cannot work in the absence of power
and a
willingness to use that power
In a globalized world, "no governance mechanism provides for completely unbiased participation or representation of affected interests.
Global governance: complex of formal and informal institutions, mechanisms, relationships, and processes between and among states, markets, citizens and organizations, both inter- and non-governmental, through which collective interests at the global plane are articulated, rights and obligations are established, and differences are mediated (Thomas G. Weiss)
Realism and Global Governance
powerful determine and shape the content of GG systems based on their own internal particulars (interests)
who counts as an
appropriate entity
what counts as an
appropriate activity
what counts as
existence itself
for any given period of time
Full transcript