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Chapter 4, Ecosystems and Communities, Sections 3-4

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Jackie Vaquera

on 2 October 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 4, Ecosystems and Communities, Sections 3-4

Major Biomes
Chapter 4, Section 3
Biomes
Objective: 6.5.e. Students know the number and types of organisms an ecosystem can support depend on the resources available and on a biotic factors, such as quantities of light and water, a range of temperatures, and soil composition.

Chapter 4: Ecosystems and Communities
Sections 3-4
Jackie Vaquera
Cynthia Govea
Leticia Salcedo
Daniel Rodriguez
German Vargas

Vocabulary
Chapter 4, Section 4
Aquatic Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Freshwater Wetlands
Marine Ecosystems
Vocabulary
biome:
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
coniferous:
term used to refer to trees that produce seed-bearing cones and have thin leaves shaped like needles
plankton:
general term for the tiny free floating organisms that live in both fresh and salt water
understory:
layer in a rain forest formed by shorter trees and vines
Intertidal Zone:
Organisms that live in the intertidal zone are exposed to air, sunlight, and different temperature changes
Competition among organisms lead to zonation where organisms live in a particular habitat based on their color
estuary:
wetlands formed where rivers meet the sea

Objective: 6-5.e. Students know the number and types of organisms and ecosystems can support depend on the resources available and on abiotic factors, such as quantities of light and water, a range of temperatures, and soil composition.
Boreal Forests:
long, cold winters and short, mild summers, mainly composed of coniferous trees
lynxes, moose, beavers, timber wolves

Tropical Rain Forests:
hot and wet year-round, mainly composed of broad-leaved evergreen trees
golden lion tamarin, toucans, sloths, parrots, parakeets, jaguars, butterflies
Temperate Grasslands:

warm/hot summers and cold winters, mainly composed of grass and herbs
coyotes, antelopes, rabbits, hawks, snakes, grasshoppers

Flowing-Water Ecosystem
is made up of rivers, streams, creeks, and any type of water form that flows over land
Animals that live in this habitat include; insects, catfish and trout which are adapted to the habitat already
Flowing water ecosystem is water going downhill and often springing from an underground water source
photic zone:
well-lit upper layer of the oceans


kelp forest:
coastal ocean community named for its dominant organism--kelp, a giant brown alga


Water in wetlands can be flowing or standing
Water can be fresh, salty, or brackish, which is a mixture of fresh and salt water
Three main types of freshwater wetlands include bogs, marshes, and swamps
Estuaries are composed of salt and fresh water, affected by the rise and fall of ocean tides
microclimate:
climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area.
tolerance:
organisms capacity to grow or thrive when subject to an unfordable environment factor
canopy:
dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall rain forest trees
humus:
material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
taiga:
biome in which the winter are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw
permafrost:
layer of permanently frozen subsoil in the tundra
decidous:
term used to refer to a tree that sheds its leaves during a particular season each year
Standing-Water Ecosystem

Lakes and Ponds are the main standing-water ecosystems and the most common.
Circulation provides and gives out heat, oxygen, and nutrients throughout the habitat
Some animals that live there include; plankton, phytoplankton, and zoo plankton

phytoplankton:
unicellular algae are supported by nutrient in the water and form the aquatic food webs.
zooplankton:
planktonic animals feed on the phytoplankton
In this lesson you will learn about Biomes, Major Biomes, Freshwater Ecosystems, Aquatic Ecosystems, Freshwater Wetlands, and Marine Ecosystems.
Tropical Savannas:
warm temperatures and it rarely rains, mainly composed of tall grass and shrubs
lions, leopards, cheetahs, elephants, giraffes, zebras, eagles, ostriches

Temperate Forests:
warm summers and cold to average winters, mainly composed of decideous trees and moss ground
deer, squirrels, racoons, skunks

Coral Reefs:
warm shallow water of the tropical coastal oceans are coral reefs
among the most productive environments on earth
Coral Reefs are named for the coral animals whose hard, calcium carbonate skeletons make up their primary structure.
Coral animals are tiny relatives of jelly fish that live together in vast number.
salt marsh:
temperate-zone estuary composed of mainly salt-tolerant grasses

zonation:
prominent horizontal banding of organisms that live in a certain habitat


Coastal Ocean:
extends from the low tide mark to the outer edge of the continental shelf, the relatively shallow border that surrounds the continents.
one of the most productive coastal ocean communities is the kelp forest and their name organisms: like a giant brown alga that can grow as much as 50 centimeters a day
wetland:
an ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year
detritus:
tiny pieces of organic material that provide food for organisms
mangrove swamp:
coastal wetland composed mainly of mangroves, salt-tolerant woody plants
aphotic zone:
permanently dark layer of the oceans under the photic zone
coastal ocean:
marine zone that extends from the low-tide mark to the end of the continental shelf
coral reef:
diverse and productive environment named for the coral animals that make up its primary structure
benthos:
organisms that live attached to or near the ocean floor
Tropical Dry Forests:
generally warm year-round, mainly composed of tall trees
tigers, monkeys, termites, snakes, spot-billed pelicans
Deserts:
all dry and the temperature can vary throughout the day, mainly composed of cacti and dirt
mountain lions, owls, hawks, roadrunners, beetles, wasps, rattlesnakes, lizards
Temperate Woodlands and Shrublands:
hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters, mainly composed of evergreen shrubs
foxes, rabbits, hawks, lizards, snakes, butterflies, mountain lions
Northwestern Coniferous Forests:
mild temperatures, cool and dry summers, mainly composed of douglas fir or redwoods
bears, elk, deer, owls, bobcats
Tundras:
short summers and long, cold winters, mainly composed of mosses and short grasses
caribou, snowy owl, arctic foxes, small rodents
Key Concept:
What are the unique characteristics of the world's major biomes?
ANSWER: Each of these biomes is defined by a unique set of abiotic factors--particularly climate--and a characteristic assemblage of plants and animals.
Key Concept:
What are the main factors that govern aquatic ecosystems?
ANSWER: Aquatic ecosystems are determined primarily by the depth, flow, temperature, and chemistry of the over-lying water.
Key Concept:
What are the two types of freshwater ecosystems?
ANSWER: The two types of freshwater ecosystems are flowing-water and standing water.
Key Concept:
What are the characteristics of the different marine zones?
ANSWER: Marine biologists divide the ocean into zones based on the depth and distance from the shore.
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