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A Level English Language Lessons

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B293 N922

on 28 November 2016

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Transcript of A Level English Language Lessons

Graphology 101
Today's lesson will all be about
graphology
and how it creates
linguistic meaning
for the reader/interlocutor
,
so let's get started:)
• AO1: Apply appropriate
methods of language analysis
, using associated terminology and coherent
written expression.
AO3: Analyse and evaluate how contextual factors and
language features are associated with the
construction of meaning.
Always about the AOs!
Graphology is a whole layer of meaning on your language pyramid.
Graphology is a crucial way in which meaning is constructed in language, creating a whole range of emotional responses.
1. Learning challenge: so what is graphology? (AO1)
Can you use/share your phones to record a working definition of graphology in your notes?
2. Learning challenge: can you grasp graphological features? (AO1)
Now we know what graphology is, grab your glossary! Can you identify as many graphological features on the following text as possible?
3. Linking graphological can you link features to meaning? (AO3)
Now we know some key graphological features, can you analyse their effects on meaning for the reader?
Graphological feature
(AO1)
Emotional effect on target audience (AO2)
"Tick" grapheme
Connotes being "correct" in
academic discourse, constructing a politically correct identity for
Barack Obama.
4. So what have we learnt so far?
With this intro to graphology drawing to a close, what have we learnt that we didn't know before?
What I learnt about
Graphology...
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
Graphology: a beautiful tale of fonts, images and colour...
Today's lesson will all be about
graphology
and how it creates
linguistic meaning
for the reader/interlocutor
,
so let's get started:)
Finding your focus...
3 key parts of graphology are:
Typography
(font style, size, etc...);
Images
and
Colour.
So what questions do you think you need to focus on today, with these concepts?
1. Learning challenge: who cares about font styles?
Can you evaluate the different identities that are being created by the following font styles?
2. Learning challenge: why is colour so much more than just "grabbing the reader's attention?
Now we understand font styles and their role in identity construction, look at: http://www.apple.com/uk/ write a table like the one below...
3. Learning challenge: can you decode these images for their meanings?
4. So what have we learnt so far?
Now you've learnt about font styles, images and colour, let's have a quick recap...
What I have learnt about
fonts, images and colours...
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
Graphology
At this level students describe and explore the visual aspects of text design and appearance.
Students can study:
• how text producers use aspects of text design to help create meaning, for example through the
use of layout, space, typographical and orthographical features and colour;
• how images are used on their own or in conjunction with writing and sound as multimodal texts
to represent ideas, individuals or groups;

Colour used
by Apple website
Connotations and identity constructed
Red
Connotations of love
create emotions of passion for
their products. Constructs Apple as
a brand with a passion for technology.
Every image is a narrative (tells a story).
e.g. US flag dress symbolises American power in a world of enemies.
Graphology
Graphology: smashing logos, layout and hyperlinks...
Today's lesson will have a
graphological focus
and will analyse use of
logos
,
textual layout
and
hyperlinks
, and how these create meaning.
Finding your focus...
3 key concepts of graphology are:
textual layout
(how language and images etc...are organised on the page);
logos
(company/brand symbol) and
hyperlinks
(intertextual links that open up another section of the text) So what questions do you think you need to focus on today, with these concepts?
1. Learning challenge: why is layout so important?
Can you analyse the different textual layouts here and fill in the table below?
2. Learning challenge: why do companies spend millions on a logo?
3. Learning challenge: why bother
embedding hyperlinks?
4. So what have we learnt so far?
Now you've learnt about
textual layout,

logos
and
hyperlinks
, let's have a quick recap...
What I have learnt about
textual layout, logos and hyperlinks?
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
Graphology
At this level students describe and explore the visual aspects of text design and appearance.
Students can study:
• how text producers use aspects of text design to help create meaning, for example through the
use of layout, space, typographical and orthographical features and colour;
• how images are used on their own or in conjunction with writing and sound as multimodal texts
to represent ideas, individuals or groups;

Now that layout is understood, let's move to breaking down logos and what they say about a company's brand identity.
Logo
Connotations and identity constructed
Wix Website layout analysis
Layout feature
Effect on target audience
Heading
Subheading
Space
Sequencing (of images etc...)
Q. Why are hyperlinks important
to electronic texts?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Pragmatics
Intro to conversational pragmatics
Today's lesson will all be about (AO1)
pragmatics
and how these factors affect the creation of (AO3)
linguistic meaning
for social groups, so let's get started:)
• AO1: Apply appropriate
methods of language analysis
, using associated terminology and coherent
written expression.
AO3: Analyse and evaluate how contextual factors and
language features are associated with the
construction of meaning.
Always about the AOs!
Pragmatics is a whole layer of meaning on your language pyramid!
Pragamatics is a crucial way in which meaning is constructed in language, creating a whole range of emotional responses.
1. Learning challenge: so what is pragmatics? (AO1)
Can you use/share your phones to record a working definition of pragmatics in your notes?
2. Learning challenge: can you analyse politeness and the agreement principle?
3. Exploring conversational pragmatics with turntaking and face...
Now we know the importance of politeness and face in social interactions, let's push forward with
turntaking
and
face
...
4. So what have we learnt so far?
With this intro to conversational pragmatics drawing to a close, what have we learnt that we didn't know before?
What I learnt about
conversational pragmatics
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
If pragmatics is all to do with how language is all about shared meanings and language used socially, the concepts of: the
agreement principle
and
politeness
are crucial.
"Pragmatics is..."
(p25 of chapter)
Text: Jonathan Ross interview of Rhianna
Turn-taking
Face
Pragmatic concept
My notes
Text A: Lorraine Kelly interview
Text B: Jeremy Kyle interview
Pragmatic concept
Politeness
Agreement principle
Speech acts, context, cultural norms, and other mysteries...
Still within pragmatics, today's lesson is all a matter of:
speech acts
and
context and cultural norms,
so let's dive in! :P
Finding your focus...
3 key parts of
pragmatics
are:
speech acts, context and cultural rules.
So what questions do you think you need to focus on today, with these concepts?
1. Learning challenge: can you learn what a speech act is?
Watch the following vid of a very famous wedding. What changes when both interlocutors say: "I do"?
2. Learning challenge: why does context affect how we use language?
Now we understand
speech acts
, let's assess
context
, which affect the pragmatic rules we follow in utterances and writing.
3. Learning challenge: what cultural rules affect your language?
4. So what have we learnt so far?
Now you've learnt about font styles, images and colour, let's have a quick recap...
What I have learnt about
speech acts, context and cultural norms
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
A speech act is...
Speech acts are important because....
Into your notes...
Most important
Least important
Sociolinguistic Context
Identity
of author, interlocutors etc...E.g. teacher, student, friends, etc...
Location
of utterance/writing. E.g. church, school, living room etc...
Field
of utterances/writing. E.g. relationships, the weather, football etc..
Mode of text:
spoken, written, multimodal. E.g
a conversation, website, YouTube video.
Genre conventions
of utterance, text. E.g.
dating, text messages, political speech.
Pragmatics
At this level students describe and explore the implied meanings of English and how language use
creates meanings in interactional contexts. Students can study:
• the implied meanings of words, utterances and speech acts in their specific contexts
• face, politeness and co-operation in language interaction
• how people draw inferences from others’ language uses
• the influence of different contexts on the meanings of communicative acts
• how attitudes, values and ideologies can be signalled through language choices
• how language is used to enact and reflect relationships between people
• aspects of culturally-based routines that are founded on shared assumptions and traditions
Now you've learnt about
speech acts, sociolinguistic context
, let's finish off with
cultural norms.
Text A: text messaging between friends
Text B: ordering food at McDonalds
Cultural norms:
Intimate field/topics
Cultural norms:
Extreme politeness
Server: Welcome to McDonalds, can I take your order sir?
Customer: Yeah thanks, can I get a Big Mac meal to go, hold the gherkins?
Server: Of course, what drink would you like with that?
Customer: Make it a Diet-Coke, with no ice, please.
Introducing identity, social connotations and ideologies :P
Finding your focus...
3 key parts of
pragmatics
are:
identity
of speakers,
idelogies
and
social connotations
: so what questions should we be interested in with these pragmatic concepts?
1. Learning challenge: when you talk/write, who are you?
Look at the following people, state their identity and how this may affect their register, tenor and lexical choices.
2. Learning challenge: why do we all respond in similar ways to language?
Just look at the three texts below and state what the
social connotations
are:
3. Learning challenge: what ideology do you have?
4. So what have we learnt so far?
Now you've learnt about font styles, images and colour, let's have a quick recap...
What I have learnt about
identity, social connotations and ideology
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
In being the social norms that affect how we talk, type and listen,
pragmatics
is bound up with
identity, social connotations and ideology
, so let's get started...
Pragmatics
At this level students describe and explore the implied meanings of English and how language use
creates meanings in interactional contexts. Students can study:
• the implied meanings of words, utterances and speech acts in their specific contexts
• face, politeness and co-operation in language interaction
• how people draw inferences from others’ language uses
• the influence of different contexts on the meanings of communicative acts
• how attitudes, values and ideologies can be signalled through language choices
• how language is used to enact and reflect relationships between people
• aspects of culturally-based routines that are founded on shared assumptions and traditions
Doctor
Policeman
Register
Tenor
Lexical choices
Linguistic concept
1. "I love you.
xxx
"
2. "This place is such a
hell-hole
!"
Understanding social connotations
E.g. "Thank you"=very polite and appreciative. A nice person!
3.
Tiffany's engagement ring
Why do we react better to picture A than picture B?
Adolf Hitler
Nelson Mandela
When Tenor meets power dynamics...
Two of the most important concepts within pragmatics is
tenor
and the
power
dynamics that are embedded within it.
Finding your focus...
What do you think is meant by the phrase: "language is power"?
1. Learning challenge: can you learn what tenor is?
Copying the following diagram into your notes, can you write a working definition of tenor?
2. Learning challenge: Can you identify different types of tenor?
Now we understand
tenor
, let's assess the
tenor
of the following social interactions.
3. Learning challenge: Can you identify power dynamics?
4. So what have we learnt so far?
Now you've learnt about tenor and power dynamics, let's have a recap...
What I have learnt about
tenor and power dynamics?
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
Tenor examples
Pragmatics
At this level students describe and explore the implied meanings of English and how language use
creates meanings in interactional contexts. Students can study:
• the implied meanings of words, utterances and speech acts in their specific contexts
• face, politeness and co-operation in language interaction
• how people draw inferences from others’ language uses
• the influence of different contexts on the meanings of communicative acts
• how attitudes, values and ideologies can be signalled through language choices
• how language is used to enact and reflect relationships between people
• aspects of culturally-based routines that are founded on shared assumptions and traditions
Now we know that all uses of language create a social relationship, let's chart the
power dynamics
in those relationships...
The return of Ideology and Identity...
Underpinning the pragmatic social rules behind all our speech and writing,
ideology
and
identity construction
are crucial to meaning, so let's get started...
Finding your focus...
3 key parts of
pragmatics
are
ideology
and
identity
, and how they are represented, so what questions do you think we need to ask about them?
1. Learning challenge: what are the different types of ideology?
What do each of these major ideologies believe in?
2. Learning challenge: can you sense the links between ideology and language?
We cannot escape
ideology
. Taught to us by family, school, religion, media, etc...what are the
ideological
beliefs of the following and how could they affect their language?
3. Learning challenge: can you track ideology and identity in a text?
4. So what have we learnt so far?
Now you've learnt about
ideology
and
identity
, let's recap...
What I have learnt about
ideology and identity
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
Pragmatics
At this level students describe and explore the implied meanings of English and how language use
creates meanings in interactional contexts. Students can study:
• the implied meanings of words, utterances and speech acts in their specific contexts
• face, politeness and co-operation in language interaction
• how people draw inferences from others’ language uses
• the influence of different contexts on the meanings of communicative acts
• how attitudes, values and ideologies can be signalled through language choices
• how language is used to enact and reflect relationships between people
• aspects of culturally-based routines that are founded on shared assumptions and traditions
Now you've learnt about ideology and identity, let's see if we can tease them out of a text.

Liberalism
Multiculturalism
Environmentalism
Marxism
Capitalism
Feminism
Nationalism
Conservatism
Religious
List of key ideologies
Democracy, freedom of the individual; civil rights; rule of law; equality for all.
Source
Ideological beliefs
Impact on language
BBC News
Strong British nationalism
Field of British news items
"It’s great to be here at this outstanding school, Ninestiles School. Your inspiring teachers and your commitment to British
values
means you are not just achieving outstanding academic success, but you are building a shared community where children of many faiths and backgrounds learn not just with each other, but from each other too...

...My starting point is this. Over generations, we have built something extraordinary in Britain – a successful multi-racial, multi-faith democracy. It’s open, diverse, welcoming – these characteristics are as British as queuing and talking about the weather...

It begins – it must begin – by understanding the threat we face and why we face it. What we are fighting, in Islamist extremism, is an ideology. It is an extreme doctrine.

And like any extreme doctrine, it is subversive. At its furthest end it seeks to destroy nation-states to invent its own barbaric realm. And it often backs violence to achieve this aim – mostly violence against fellow Muslims – who don’t subscribe to its sick worldview.
But you don’t have to support violence to subscribe to certain intolerant ideas which create a climate in which extremists can flourish. Ideas which are hostile to basic liberal values such as democracy, freedom and sexual equality..."
"British values"-has connotations of liberal ideology.
E.g. democracy, multiculturalism, etc...
Text Analysis of Ideology and Identity: PM David Cameron's speech on Islamic extremism
TIPS:
Look for personal pronouns like "I", "we" etc...as these can give clues to identity construction.
Look for emotive lexical choices such as "sick" that can reveal the ideological views of the speaker.
Look for any figurative language as these suggest the way the speaker things and their guiding ideology.
Look for existential verbs (are, is, does etc...) as these help spell out the worldview of the speaker.
Tenor
The social relationship between
interlocutors/audiences/writers.
E.g. friendship, customer/waiter
The communicative purposes of
interlocutors/speakers/writers/audiences.
E.g. transactional, strengthening social
bonds, etc...
My definition of tenor is:
Communicative
purpose
Social relationship
Example
1. Policeman arresting
a suspect.
2. Person viewing
an online advertisement.
3. Text between friends arranging night out.
My notes on power dynamics in
Mamet's Glengary Glen Ross...
What are the power dynamics like between
the interlocutors?
What tenor is being created between the characters?
What linguistic methods does the boss use to keep the power dynamics in their favour?
A very short introduction to attitudes and values...
Finding your focus...
We all have
attitudes
and
values
that condition how we: read, write and talk, so what is the difference between
attitudes
and
values
?

1. Learning challenge: so who cares about attitudes and values?
So what
attitudes and values
can we bring to language?
2. Learning challenge: can you trace attitudes and values?
Just look at the following film clip and see if you can track your
attitudes
and what
values
the film promotes
3. Learning challenge: can you trace attitudes and values in written text?
4. So what have we learnt so far?
Now you've learnt about font styles, images and colour, let's have a quick recap...
What I have learnt about
attitudes and values
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
Embedded within any utterances or writing, are a web of
attitudes
and
values
, which affect how the language is formed and interpreted by audiences...
Pragmatics
At this level students describe and explore the implied meanings of English and how language use
creates meanings in interactional contexts. Students can study:
• the implied meanings of words, utterances and speech acts in their specific contexts
• face, politeness and co-operation in language interaction
• how people draw inferences from others’ language uses
• the influence of different contexts on the meanings of communicative acts
• how attitudes, values and ideologies can be signalled through language choices
• how language is used to enact and reflect relationships between people
• aspects of culturally-based routines that are founded on shared assumptions and traditions
Look at the following text and fill in the boxes below:
Possible attitudes
Possible values
Happiness
Sadness
Respect for democracy
Belief in multiculturalism
My attitudes

Text: "The Hurt-Locker" film
Values promoted
Sympathy for
the soldiers' situation.
Pro-American political
perspectives.
Attitudes
(with quotes)
Fear: "alarm"
Values promoted
(with quotes)
Anti-Islamic fundamentalism: "warn ISIS"
Writing assessment...
Discourse
A very short introduction to discourse within texts
Today's lesson will all be about
discourse
within texts and how it is constructed. In structuring a text and helping it make sense,
discourse
is crucial, so let's get started...
Always about the AOs!
1. Learning challenge: so what is discourse?
Write down the following definition of discourse into your notes, but be ready to discuss...
2. Learning challenge: can you assess how discourse is created in single texts?
3. Learning challenge: can you identify how discourse is created in a single text?
Now let's get a handle on the
discursive features
which create
cohesion
in this text...
4. So what have we learnt so far?
With this intro to conversational pragmatics drawing to a close, what have we learnt that we didn't know before?
What I learnt about
discourse within texts
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
Apply the following discursive terminology to the following very random texts, to see what gives them discursive structure.
"Discourse is to do with:
The overall structure of individual texts e.g. the narrative structure of fairytales, etc...
How these meanings come together to create overall narratives/messages E.g. the discourse on Islamic terrorism being a threat to the West, etc...
Discourse
At this level students describe and explore the ways in which whole texts (written, spoken and
multimodal) are constructed at a level beyond the word, phrase, clause and sentence. Students
can study:
• Discourse structure: how a text is structured overall (i.e. how its parts are assembled). For
example: a question and answer format; problem – solution structure; narrative structure;
adjacency pairs in a spoken interaction
• How references are made within and between texts using cohesive devices and referencing
• Narrative structures in texts
• How texts are related to and contribute towards wider beliefs, ideologies and values in society
– ie discourses, in the plural (see later in this glossary)
"I like cakes. The medical name for skin diseases is psoriasis. Have you ever been to Venice? Jokes are funny aren't they? He likes roast chicken and always drives on the wrong side of the road."
"I like cakes. My all-time favourite has to to be a pistachio eclair I ate in Paris: it was divine! They hadn't tried one yet, but my friends loved them too, although they dropped some on the table, the photos on Facebook need to be seen to be believed.
Text A
Text B
COHESION: what happens when texts "make sense".
Anaphoric reference:
reference to something previously mentioned in a text.
E.g. "I like
cakes
...they hadn't tried
one
yet"
Cataphoric reference:
reference to something to be mentioned later in a text. "
They
hadn't tried one yet, but my
friends
love them too."
Exophoric reference:
reference to things outside the text. E.g.
"The
photos on Facebook
need to be seen..."
Endophoric reference:
reference to things inside the text.
"They dropped
some on the table
."
Deixis:
Use of language which cannot be understood without the context.
E.g. "
It
was divine!"

Discourse is..
.
Anaphoric references:
Cataphoric references:
Deixis:
Endophoric references:
Exophoric references:
=
Cohesion
A very short introduction to discourses between texts
Today's lesson will all be about
discourse
with a
capital "D
" as a
spider's web of all possible texts
, and how they create overall messages, etc...
Always about the AOs!
1. Learning challenge: can you identify the messages of different discourses
Look at the following discourses and try to state briefly what are the broad discursive messages around them.
2. Learning challenge: can you understand why discourses are so important?
3. Can you understand the links between discourse and ideology?
Now we understand what
discourse
is, let's trace the links between
discourse
and
ideology.
4. So what have we learnt so far?
With this intro to conversational pragmatics drawing to a close, what have we learnt that we didn't know before?
What I learnt about
discourse between texts
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
So if millions of texts are coming together to form discourses that shape the way we think about topics/people, etc...what is their deeper significance?
Discourse structures within texts
Today's lesson will be the different
discourse structures
that individual texts can follow. So let's get ready to open them up to analysis...
Always about the AOs!
Copy the table into your notes and finish the final column with your friends (or frenemies!) in class.
2. Learning challenge: can you identify the different discourse structures?
3. Learning challenge: can you understand Labovian narrative structure?
One of the most important narrative structrues was by sociolinguistist William Labov, so let's have a look.
4. So what have we learnt so far?
With this intro drawing to a close, what have we learnt that we didn't know before?
What I learnt about
discourse within texts
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
Look at the following text types and identify which discourse structure they have and how you know this...
Discourse
At this level students describe and explore the ways in which whole texts (written, spoken and
multimodal) are constructed at a level beyond the word, phrase, clause and sentence. Students
can study:
• Discourse structure: how a text is structured overall (i.e. how its parts are assembled). For
example: a question and answer format; problem – solution structure; narrative structure;
adjacency pairs in a spoken interaction
• How references are made within and between texts using cohesive devices and referencing
• Narrative structures in texts
• How texts are related to and contribute towards wider beliefs, ideologies and values in society
– ie discourses, in the plural (see later in this glossary)
1. Learning challenge: can you understand the different types of discourse structures?
Tracing power dynamics in spoken and written discourse
Today's lesson will all be about analysing
power dynamics within spoken and written discourse
, so let's get started...
Always about the AOs!
1. Learning challenge: so what are the two different forms of power?
Can you use/share your phones to research the two main forms of power that exist in language
2. Learning challenge: can you analyse power dynamics in a spoken text?
3. Learning challenge: can you analyse power dynamics in a written text?
Within all written discourse as well, let's analyse the following adverts for their
power dynamics
...
4. So what have we learnt so far?
With this intro to power dynamics in spoken/written discourse drawing to a close, what have we learnt that we didn't know before?
What I learnt about
power dynamics in spoken and written
discourse
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
Power dynamics
exist in all
spoken discourse
, so let's analyse the
power dynamics
in the following text...
Instrumental power is...
Discourse analysis, content analysis and critical discourse analysis
Discourse structues are clearly in the specification, so must be able be analysed in the exam:P
Type of discourse structure
Features
Types of text
1. Transactional structure (Q and A)
2. Problem-solution structure
3. Analytical structure
5. Narrative structure
Starts with a problem; concludes with a solution.
Starts with a problem; concludes with a solution.
Turn-taking, politeness, etc...
Chronological order
Rich description
Complicating action/drama
Breaks down key ideas and explains/evaluates them
4. Instructional structure
Breaks instructions into steps
Orders/commands
Text A: Gordon Ramsay Jerk Chicken recipe
Text B: "The Werewolf"-Angela Carter
It is a northern country; they have cold weather, they have cold hearts.

Cold; tempest; wild beasts in the forest. It is a hard life.

Their houses are built of logs, dark and smoky within. There will be a crude icon of the virgin behind a guttering candle, the leg of a pig hung up to cure, a string of drying mushrooms. A bed, a stool, a table. Harsh, brief, poor lives.To these upland woodsmen, the Devil is as reals as you or I...
Text C: Dyson advert
Q. What do you think is the most important aspect of the Labovian narrative structure, and why?
Discourse
At this level students describe and explore the ways in which whole texts (written, spoken and
multimodal) are constructed at a level beyond the word, phrase, clause and sentence. Students
can study:
• Discourse structure: how a text is structured overall (i.e. how its parts are assembled). For
example: a question and answer format; problem – solution structure; narrative structure;
adjacency pairs in a spoken interaction
• How references are made within and between texts using cohesive devices and referencing
• Narrative structures in texts
• How texts are related to and contribute towards wider beliefs, ideologies and values in society
– ie discourses, in the plural (see later in this glossary)
When millions of texts come together, they form a
discourse
or message, that often condition the way we think about a topic. E.g. the current
discourse
surrounding Islamic extremism that represents them as evil enemies of democracy, that must be defeated.
Discourse A: Education
Discourse B: The NHS
Discourse C: War on Terrorism
Education as a fundamental right.
Academic excellence is the highest goal.
Lessons should never impinge on democratic, liberal ideology.
1798: Legal to keep a black slave and kill them for certain crimes.
Case study: changing discourse on racism
1963: Martin Luther King
"I have a dream speech."
2010: UK Equality Act officially makes racism an illegal, criminal offence.
Q. What is happening to the discourse on racism here?
Q. How and why did it change?
Q. How did this change in the discourse of racism affect black people?
Case Study of the discourse of Syrian refugees

Discourse A: Pro-immigration discourse
Discourse B: Anti-immigration discourse
Pro-immigration discourse
Anti-immigration discourse
Aspect
1. Views on immigrants
2. Ideological views
3. Solution to immigration
4. Relevant political parties
Also AO3, meaning led, don't feature spot!!! First reading just get a handle on meaning, then apply terms...

Analysing verbs for what actions people are doing. Very useful...

Also some theory on how texts are received. E.g. reception theory, speech communities, etc...

Discourse
At this level students describe and explore the ways in which whole texts (written, spoken and
multimodal) are constructed at a level beyond the word, phrase, clause and sentence. Students
can study:
• Discourse structure: how a text is structured overall (i.e. how its parts are assembled). For
example: a question and answer format; problem – solution structure; narrative structure;
adjacency pairs in a spoken interaction
• How references are made within and between texts using cohesive devices and referencing
• Narrative structures in texts
• How texts are related to and contribute towards wider beliefs, ideologies and values in society
– ie discourses, in the plural (see later in this glossary)
How to analyse spoken discourse
Today's lesson will all be about how to analyse
spoken discourse
complete with
micropauses
,
gesticulation
, etc...
Always about the AOs!
In pairs fill in the following table, outlining differences between spoken and written modes.
3. Can you understand all of the terminology for spoken discourse?
Now we understand
prosodic features
for
spoken language
, let's start looking at the full range of the terms required.
4. So what have we learnt so far?
With this intro to analysisng spoken discourse drawing to a close, what have we learnt that we didn't know before?
What I learnt about
spoken discourse
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
So if millions of texts are coming together to form discourses that shape the way we think about topics/people, etc...what is their deeper significance?
Discourse
At this level students describe and explore the ways in which whole texts (written, spoken and
multimodal) are constructed at a level beyond the word, phrase, clause and sentence. Students
can study:
• Discourse structure: how a text is structured overall (i.e. how its parts are assembled). For
example: a question and answer format; problem – solution structure; narrative structure;
adjacency pairs in a spoken interaction
• How references are made within and between texts using cohesive devices and referencing
• Narrative structures in texts
• How texts are related to and contribute towards wider beliefs, ideologies and values in society
– ie discourses, in the plural (see later in this glossary)
The texts to be analysed in the exam can also cover
spoken discourse.
Whilst the same technical terms can be used,
spoken discourse
also has its
own terminology to use.
Text: Extract from"Jamie Oliver 30 Minute Meals"
2. Learning challenge: can you understand prosodic devices within spoken discourse?
1. Learning challenge: can you identify key differences between written and spoken modes?
Parlinguistic feature
gesticulation
repair
prosodic features
False starts
Interjections
Fillers
Non-fluency feature
Accent
Dialect
Sociolect
Idiolect
Micropauses
Dramatic pause
stressed syllables
Turn-taking
Intonation
Pitch
Back chanelling

http://www.slideshare.net/BCALevels/alevel-english-glossary
Differences in spoken and written modes
Spoken Mode
Written mode

Point 1: Democratic ideology clearly guides PM David Cameron's sylistic choices when choosing to represent ISIS as a horrific doctrine that must be defeated: "
Point 2: PM David Cameron's sombre register allows him to construct a common British identity with his audience, in political opposition to ISIS:
J.O: [directly to camera with gesticulation] Who doesn’t lo
ve
a
beaut
iful curry with frie
nds
and f
am
ily? (.) And
you
know what (.)
far
too often people resort to the
take
away (.) when if
you
do it
my
way (.) if
you
do it the
thir
ty minute meals way (.) it will definitely be
tast
ier,
fas
ter and
healt
hier. You’re gonna
love
this one (2)

Key to spoken language prosodic features
(.) micro pause (less than a second)
(1) longer pause (in seconds)
JO initials of speaker
[ ] square brackets to denote paralinguistic features like gesticulation, sneezing, hand gestures etc…
Rising or falling intonation
Word:
stressed syllable (may be underlined or capitalised)
//-speech overlap
Q. How do these prosodic features help make Jamie Oliver an effective spoken communicator?
TRANSCRIPTION KEY:
(.) = micro-pause
(1) = length of pause in seconds
// = speech overlap
= rising intonation
= falling intonation
/jə/ = phonemic representation of speech sounds
underlined = stressed sound/syllable
Spoken discourse analysis: Gordon Ramsay "Kitchen Nightmares"
Gesticulation=
Rising intonation during: "love a beautiful curry" =
Stressed syllable of "
take
away" =
Micropauses throughout =
Fields
Lexical choices
Text length
Text structure
Power dynamics are embedded within textual structure
http://www.universalteacher.org.uk/lang/power.htm
Influential power is...
Textual analysis: GP consultancy

Q. How is the turn-taking structured?
Q. How does the medical register of the doctor affect power dynamics?
Q. What are the conventions of the GP consultancy and how do these affect who is in power?
Q. What tenor is being created in this interaction, and why?
Text A: McDonalds Advert
Text B: Pop-chips Advert
Deontic modality:
Displays certainty (how something ought to be.) e.g
"You must do that."
Epistemic modality:
Suggests possibilities that are most likely to be true. e.g "You could do that."
Modal verbs:
express possibility
actions. E.g. could, should, would, shall, must, will, may, would, might etc...
Intro to grammar level of analysis: Morphemes
Today's lesson will start to open up the
grammar level
of the pyramid with
morphemes
, so let's get started...
Always about the AOs!
1. Learning challenge: so what are morphemes?
3. Learning challenge: can you understand grammar at the lexical level
4. Can you understand the processes of inflection and dervivation?
The two key effects that
morphemes
usually have on meaning, is
inflection
and
derivation
, so answer the questions below.
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
A key classification of
morphemes
are
prefixes
(
morphemes
at the start of a word) and
suffixes
(
morphemes
at the end of the word).
Grammar
What does the following tell us about what morphemes are?
"Psychopath"
Morphemes are...
1. "Pre" as in "prehistoric"
1. "Ful" as in "helpful"
2. Learning challenge: can you understand grammar at the lexical level
The smallest grammatical unit of meaning is called a
morpheme
. E.g. "quickest" has two
morphemes
"quick" and "est". Can you break the following words into their
morphemes
?
Lexis
http://www.pburgsd.net/cms/lib04/NJ01001118/Centricity/Domain/174/List-of-English-Morphemes.pdf
Morphemes
Childhood
Prequel
Platform
Superiority
Establishment
Psychology
"psych", "ology"
Semantic meaning:
"psych"=referring to the mind
"ology"=the study of...
Prefix and suffix analysis
Prefixes:

Semantic meaning
Suffixes:
2. "Anti" as in "antidote"
3. "Dis" as in "dissaprove"
3. "Ness" as in "kindness"
2. "Ic" as in "linguistic"
"Psycho"
"path"
2 morphemes
Referring to the mind.
Referring to illness.
Q. What are inflection and derivation?
Q. In what ways can inflection change word
meaning?
Q. In what ways can derivation change meaning?
Q. Can you inflect the words: "skip" and "hop" in some way?
Q. Can you derive the words "likely" and "hopeful" to form new words.
Grammar level of analysis: Clauses
After morphemes, we now move to
clauses
, that are the smaller chunks of meaning that make up sentences, so let's get started.
Always about the AOs!
1. Learning challenge: so what can you learn about clauses?
3. Learning challenge: can you analyse clausal syntax?
4. Can you understand manipulate clausal syntax for effect?
You're writing a climate change advert. Juggle the
syntax
of the
clauses
below for maximum effect. Be ready then to explain your
clausal syntax
choices.
Now we know what
clauses
are, let's look at
clausal syntax
and how this can be analysed.
Use the following YouTube lecture to make detailed notes on
clauses.
My notes on clauses...
2. Learning challenge: can you identify cordinated, subordinated and adverbial clauses
Now let's break down the following sentences into their
coordinated
and
subordinated
clauses.

Q. In what ways can derivation change meaning?
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
Predicate/verb analysis in clauses...what verbs are used
Identify independent/dependent/adverbial clauses in sentences
What is a clause? E.g. has a subject and a verb.
Also, subject, predicate, object analysis for power, etc...
Identifying coordinated and subordinated clauses
E.g. The cat is sleeping and the mice are playing, although now tired.
Independent clause
(Has subject and verb)
(Makes sense on its own)
Independent clause
(Has subject and verb)
(Makes sense on its own)
Dependent clause
(Has subject and verb)
(Makes no sense on its own)
1. She ran quickly, because she wanted to win.
2. The boy, who was only seven, could play the piano.
3. After she picks me up, mom is taking me shopping; she's so amazing!
N.B.
A. "If you donate £5 a month, we can save the sight of up to one hundred children"
Subordinated clause
Coordinated clause
Syntax=order of words.
Clausal syntax=order of clauses
B. "We can save the sight of up to one hundred children, if you donate £5 a month"
Q. Why is the clausal syntax of Example A more effective?
Climate change advert
"We must act now"
"The planet is dying"
"Without you, climate change is irreversible"
"Although hope remains"
"After billions of tonnes of greenhouse emissions"
Q. What relationships are being stressed by your chosen clausal syntax?
GR: You've never cooked a mussel (2)
C: Well
[chef gesticulates with hand]
(.) you can shout at me (.) or you can fucking help (.) I don't mind (2)
Grammar level of analysis: sentence types
Now we understand clauses, let's now look at
sentence types
, and how they create meaning.
Always about the AOs!
1. Learning challenge: so what can you learn about sentence types?
3. Learning challenge: can you analyse sentence types and representations?
4. Can you trace patterns in sentence types within this text?
For top grades, you will assess
patterns
that occur across texts, so let's look at
patterns
in sentence types and why...
Now let's analyse the representations which can be created by different
sentence types
.
Use the following YouTube lecture to make detailed notes on sentence types...
My notes on sentence types
2. Learning challenge: can you understand how sentence type affects tone
Now we know the 4 different
sentence types
, let's see the effect they can have on
tone.
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
SPOCA analysis and focus on verbs...
Example
Sentence type
Tone created
1. That's brilliant.
Declarative
Appreciative tone
2. That's brilliant!
3. That's brilliant?
4. Close the door.
5. Close the door!
Text A: NYC Health advert
Text B: Coca Cola Appreciation Society
Imperative sentence: "Find out at NYC.GOV (Creates a representation of soda drinks as urgent health issue, requiring government intervention.)
Mom:
So when are you going to clean your room? (Interrogative sentence constructs a figure of authority, requiring answers).
Son:
Not sure, in a bit maybe?
Mom:
I've told you three times, so clean it now.
Son:
Alright, I'll clean it after football.
Mom:
You'll clean it now!
Grammar level of analysis: Modification and syntax
A key concept regarding representation is the process of
modification
, with
syntax
also covered. So let's get started...
Always about the AOs!
1. Learning challenge: can you grasp the basics of modification?
3. Learning challenge: Can you understand the basics of syntax?
4. Can you understand manipulate clausal syntax for effect?
You're writing a romance novel. Juggle the
syntax
of the words below and explain what emotional effects this creates.
Now that we have analysed
modification
, let's start assessing
syntax
of words.
Write down the following into your notes...
2. Learning challenge: can you understand the importance of modification to representation?
Now let's analyse how
modification
choices affect representation.
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
A. "If you donate £5 a month, we can save the sight of up to one hundred children"
Dependent clause
Independent clause
Syntax=order of words.
Clausal syntax=order of clauses
B. "We can save the sight of up to one hundred children, if you donate £5 a month"
Q. Why is the clausal syntax of Example A more effective?
Modification:
The process whereby adjectives/adverbs are
attached to nouns
, to give more info.
E.g. 1 The nice cat.
E.g. 2 This house is awful!
Pre-modifier
Post-modifier
E.g. 3 "This meal is fantastic, much better than Nando's. Obviously, they need to get rid of all that rubbish Piri Piri.
Text A: The Last of Us Poster
"Naughty Dog has delivered the most riveting, emotionally resonant story-driven epic of this console generation"
Text B: US President-Elect Donald Trump
Modifiers
Representation
"Donald Trump is absolutely the biggest loser. He spews crap from every hole. If he becomes President, this country will quickly turn into a racist Hell-hole!"
Modifiers
Representation
"Most riveting"
The game is the pinnacle of excellence within its genre.

"Barcelona are a great team, Real Madrid are too."
"Real Madrid are a great team, Barcelona are too."
What does the inversion of syntax imply?
"He lit her cigarette, silently."
"Silently, he lit her cigarette."
Romance novel
"They looked at each other intently."
Original Line
Syntactically inverted line
"They had never held hands before"
"The silence between them was deafening"
Grammar level of analysis: Active and Passive Voice
A key concept within grammar is the use of the
active and passive voices
, so let's get ready to analyse its construction.
Always about the AOs!
1. Learning challenge: can you grasp the basics of active and passive voice?
4. Learning challenge: Can you understand why the passive voice may be used?
3. Learning challenge: Can you understand effects of the active voice?
With the
active voice
being the most commonly used, let's focus on its effects.
With the
passive voice
used less often, let's focus on the effects it can create when used.
Studying the image, can you write definitions of the active and passive voices?
2. Learning challenge: can you write your own sentences in the active and passive voices?
Now let's write your own
active/passive sentences...
Hungry for more? Grab this lesson at :https://twitter.com/MrHeath3
N.B.
Subject
=the person or thing which is doing the action.
E.g. "I threw the ball" where "I" is the subject.
"The penguins attacked my sister!"
"My sister was attacked by penguins!"
Active voice
Passive voice
1. He sings a song
1. A song is sung by him
2. The boy killed the spider
3. I thought of an idea
4. Mistakes were made by Ben
5. My heart was won by her
6. Italian is the best language
*Look for who is doing the action (subject), then whether this subject is at the start or end of the sentence.
1. "Mistakes were made by the government"
Passive voice examples
This has the effect of...
2. "Three terrorists were dragged out of the burning building by police."
Passive voice effects
Tip:
turn the sentence into active voice, and see the difference.
3. "The whole city was destroyed by the fire"
4. "Gun laws could not be changed by the President."
The active voice is...
The passive voice is...
More dynamic
(action filled)
More concise and direct
Easy to understand actions and effects
"Saudi Arabia executes 47 people"
"Apple sold 3 million iPhones last week"
"She never gave me her number, I swear!"
My chosen active voice sentence of___________________
Phonology/prosodics
Grammar/morphology
Lexis and semantics
Graphology
Discourse
Pragmatics
Language Levels
The social level:

E.g. politeness principle, shared meanings, audience construction, etc...

The visual level:

E.g. typography, layout, logos, images, etc...

The audio level:
e.g. volume, stress, euphony, cacophony, etc...

The word level:

E.g. word classes, connotations, registers, etc...

The clause/sentence level:
E.g. Modification, sentence types, syntax

The overall/structual level:
E.g. Genre, cohesion, anaphora, etc...

The linguistic rank scale:

Morpheme
Word
Clause
Sentence
Phrase
Text
Discourse
Smallest unit of linguistic meaning.
E.g. "ism" as in feminism/communism
E.g. 2 "pre" as in prehistoric/prequel, etc...
The next smallest unit of linguistic meaning and fulfill grammatical functions.
E.g. description=adjectives, actions=verbs, etc...
E.g. "Bad", "good".
E.g. "Running", "skipping", "loving".
A phrase is a small cluster of words that cluster around a head noun (noun phrase); head verb (verb phrase) but
does not have a subject doing the verb.
E.g. The expensive television (noun phrase).
E.g. "ran around" (verb phrase)
E.g. "He ran around" (Not a phrase!)
A small cluster of words/phrases, clauses are centered around a verb phrase and
do have a subject doing the action.
"I turned on the television, with my foot..."
Subject:
The thing doing the action.
Object:
The thing being changed by the action.
Adverbial phrase:
Gives more detail on he verb process, where, when, etc...

Subject
(so it is a clause!)
Object
Adverbial clause
Multi-clause structures
Coordinated clause:
Clause which makes sense on its own. (Subject and verb) E.g. "He ran quickly
."

Subordinate clause:
Clause which does not make sense on its own. E.g. "He ran quickly, although
I did too
".
Coordinating conjunctions:
These join two coordinating clauses together: "and", "but", "or", "nor", "for", "yet", "so"
Subordinating conjunctions
: These join a coordinated clause to a subordinate clause. e.g. "after", "although", "when", etc...
after
although
as
because
before
even if
even though
if
in order that once
provided that
rather than
since
so that
than
that
though
unless until
when
whenever
where
whereas
wherever
whether
while
why
E.g. 1: "I went into town and I met my friends"
Coordinated clause
Coordinated clause
Coordinating conjunction
E.g.2 "She ran into the house, although nobody was home.
Subject here makes this a clause
Coordinated clause
Subordinating conjunction
Subordinate clause
A unit of meaning consisting of at least one clause, and often of many clauses woven together. E.g. "Global warming is the biggest threat we face, and we must solve it."
Look for joining words when finding clauses!
Simple sentence:
Sentence with only one clause. E.g. "She shot me!"
Compound sentence:
Sentence with 2 coordinated clauses. E.g. "She shot me, and I didn't die!"
Complex sentence:
Sentence with 1 coordinated and at least 1 subordinated clause. E.g. "She shot me, although I didn't die, whereas my brother did!"
Inflection:
Morphemes used to change tense or plural. E.g.
Punch/punched, zebra/zebras.

Derivation:
Where morphemes are used to change a word. E.g.
approve/disapprove, useful/useless.
Prefix:
Morphemes put at start of words e.g "pre"-prehistoric, etc...
Suffix:
Morphemes put at ed of words e.g. "ed" in punched, etc...
"Home Office misspells language in English tests announcement"
Here the prefix "mis" with its semantic meaning of being incorrect, is used to represent the UK government as incompetent and unable to plan effectively.
Moreover the inflected morpheme "spells" constructs the present tense, as though such incompetence is happening at the moment, increasing a sense of indignation in the reader.
'Racist to whites' Charlotte Rampling weighs in on Oscars diversity row"
"Migration crisis: Dozens drowned in shipwrecks off Greece"
"Migrant crisis: Dozen drown in shipwreck off Greece"
Pushing for the A*s!
Adjectives:
comparative
Superlative
Adjective of quality
Adjective of quantity
In terms of representation, which sentence type do you think is the best for representing something as a "fact" and why?
*Grammar is one of the key language levels for top grades!
Pushing for the A*s!
What sentence type may dominate a cookery book, and why? Think
purpose
and
target readership
of the text.
Fifteen fun facts about Coca Cola!
1. Only 25 bottles sold in first year!
2. Coca Cola is the most understood expression in the world, after "ok".
3. Coca Cola contains half the caffeine in a cup of coffee!
Want to know more about Coca Cola?
http://partofspeech.org/conjunction/
Pushing for the A*s!
Look for
patterns
in sentence types. Which
sentence type
dominates in each text; why do you think this is?
Orthographical sentence:
A sentence with full stop and capital letter, but no verb. E.g. He listened. Silence.
Pushing for the A*s!
What do the sentence type selections say about the identity of the two interlocutors?
Writing Task...
Write a comparative paragraph on the representations of soft drinks (focusing on sentence types used).
Why do
exclamatory
sentences dominate in Text B?
Why do
declarative
sentences dominate in Text A?
Within both texts, there are contrasting patterns of sentence types used to construct soft-drinks in a variety of ways...
Italy
Lexical Analysis 101
Harvard
Terrorism
What is the denotation of the word?
What connotations does the word have and how does this affect the semantics (meaning)?
What is the phonology of the word? E.g euphonious/cacophonous.
How many syllables does the word have?

Lexis and Semantics
Synonyms and antonyms practice
Good
Lexis
Synonyms
Antonym
High
Sporty
War
Clever
Literal and Figurative meaning
1. The student really took off!

2. The student started blossoming.

3. The NHS is overrun with patients.

4. That shot was an absolute screamer!
Semantic Fields
A semantic field is the neighbourhood of similar words.
E.g. "football", "cricket", "rugby" are all in the semantic field of sport.
"Politics"
"Parliament"
What is representation?
Intro to representation
What is representation?
Key terminology
Representation:
Stereotype:
Archetype:
Hegemonic norm:
Subversion:
Values and attitudes:
Representation of women in Text A:
---How are women being represented in this text?
---What are the stereotypes around the representation of women?
---What is the hegemonic norm of how women are represented?

---Is this hegemonic norm being cemented or subverted in Text A?
Representation
of women
Textual evidence
"You choose"-denotation of personal pronoun "you"
places focus on female choice.
As individuals with their own personal freedom.
Point about representation of women
Use a short illustrative quotation

Apply your tech terms e.g. connotations, word classes, etc... and say how they affect representation.

Use another short snippet quotation to extend your ideas


Analysing Morphemes
Drowned
Break into morphemes
Shipwreck
Migration
Migration
Migrant
Dozen
Dozens
Drown
Drowned
Shipwreck
Shipwrecks
How is inflection and derivation
affecting the representation of
migrants?
Lexis and semantics

https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=0ahUKEwionKmchtHPAhXD7RQKHSKBC2oQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fvoyage.gentside.com%2Ftaj-mahal%2Fwallpaper&psig=AFQjCNElpQYnyxnBPVBAI-t5YjRx-HwjUQ&ust=1476216758814448
Modification Practice
A. The Taj Mahal
B. Mauritian beach
C. House Antillia
D. Pizza!
E. Ferrari
LC: To analyse the 3 different types of modifier
Adjective:
A word describing a noun e.g. good, big etc...

Comparative adjective:
A word comparing two nouns e.g. better, bigger, etc...

Superlative adjective:
A word expressing the most of a quality. E.g. best, biggest, etc..
SMART START
PLEASE WRITE IN YOUR LEARNING GLOSSARY
Adjectives
Comparative adjectives
Superlative adjectives
Examples in the text
Type of adjectives
The most effective adjective and why
Istanbul had always been an enchanting city, with
stunning minarets that glimmered in the afternoon sun.
Much nicer than Damascus, better than Baghdad, sunnier than Rome; Istanbul had it all. In fact, Istanbul was the finest city in all of Europe and Asia, indeed, the sweetest of any place on earth!
Evaluating modifiers
1. The most effective adjective is______, which makes the reader feel emotions such as____because______

2. The most effective comparative adjective is______which makes the the reader feel emotions such as____because____

3. The most effective superlative adjective is_____which makes the reader feel emotions such as____because_____
Extra Mile: How do the modifiers represent Istanbul across the text
generally?
LC: To understand the emotional effects of modifiers
"Tigers make a variety of sounds. They include a number of roars and growls, the loudest of these being most
likely the full-throated aaonh, usually made during the mating season by males and oestrous females. It's a cry
that travels far and wide, and is absolutely petrifying when heard close up. Tigers go woof when they are
caught unawares, a short, sharp detonation of fury that would instantly make your legs jump up and run away
if they weren't frozen to the spot. When they charge, tigers put out throaty, coughing roars. The growl they use
for purposes of threatening has yet another guttural quality. And tigers hiss and snarl, which, depending on the
emotion behind it, sounds either like autumn leaves rustling on the ground, but a little more resonant, or, when
it's an infuriated snarl, like a giant door with rusty hinges slowly opening-in both cases, utterly spine-chilling.
Tigers make other sounds too. They grunt and they moan. They purr, though not as melodiously or as
frequently as small cats, and only as they breathe out. (Only small cats purr breathing both ways. It is one of
the characteristics that distinguishes big cats from small cats. Another is that only big cats can roar. A good
thing that is. I'm afraid the popularity of the domestic cat would drop very quickly if little kitty could roar its
displeasure.) Tigers even go meow, with an inflection similar to that of domestic cats, but louder and in a
deeper range, not as encouraging to one to bend down and pick them up. And tigers can be utterly,
majestically silent, that too."
SMART START: What are all the emotions that can be felt when we read language?
Different emotions we can feel when we read language are:
Happiness,
Life of Pi Premodifiers
Life of Pi Postmodiers
In the Life of Pi extract, premodifiers such as___and____
are used, to draw out emotions such as____and____from the reader, who feels this because____Moreover, postmodifiers such as____are used also, with examples such as____and_____serving to create emotional reactions such as____and_____because_______.
Extra Mile: Can you research and use the emotional reaction of "pathos" in a sentence?
What brand identities are being constructed graphologically, in these texts?
Graphemes
Logo
Slogan
Symbolic use of colour
Uppercase typography
Lowercase typography
Hyperlinks
Q. Analyse how Text A uses language to create meanings and representations.
Recapping AOs
Today we will be recapping the Assessment Objectives (AOs)
The exams and non-exam assessment will measure to what extent students have achieved the
following assessment objectives.
• AO1: Apply appropriate methods of language analysis, using associated terminology and coherent
written expression.
• AO2: Demonstrate critical understanding of concepts and issues relevant to language use.
• AO3: Analyse and evaluate how contextual factors and language features are associated with the
construction of meaning.
• AO4: Explore connections across texts, informed by linguistic concepts and methods.
• AO5: Demonstrate expertise and creativity in the use of English to communicate in different ways.
Weighting of assessment objectives for AS English Language
Assessment objectives (AOs) Component weightings (approx %) Overall weighting
(approx %) Paper 1 Paper 2
AO1 14 7 21
AO2 – 29 29
AO3 22 – 22
AO4 14 – 14
AO5 – 14 14
Overall weighting of components 50 50 100
Assessment
Objective
What it
means
Strategies to
hit the AO
Unlocking AO3 Context
Target demographics:

Who is the text aimed at?
What is their age, gender, social class, ideology?
Has the views of demographics changed?
How does this affect the language?
Genre conventions:

What genre is the text?
What are the conventions of this genre?
How do the ge conventions affect the language?
Purpose of the text:
Why was the text written?
What effect is it trying to create?
How has the purpose affected the language
Mode of the text:
Is the text written, spoken, multimodal?
Why has that mode been chosen?
How does the mode affect the language?
Hegemonic norms:
What fields are being represented?
What is the hegemonic norm for these fields?
How does the audience expect the fields to be represented?
Text A: New York Travel Guide
Text B: Jamie Oliver Online Recipe
TRUMP: Thank you. Thank you very much, everyone.
Sorry to keep you waiting; complicated business; complicated.

(APPLAUSE)

TRUMP: I’ve just received a call from Secretary Clinton.
She congratulated us — it’s about us — on our victory, and I congratulated her and her family on a very, very hard-fought campaign. I mean, she — she fought very hard.
Hillary has worked very long and very hard over a long period of time, and we owe her a major debt of gratitude for her service to our country.

(APPLAUSE)

I mean that very sincerely. Now it’s time for America to bind the wounds of division; have to get together. To all Republicans and Democrats and independents across this nation, I say it is time for us to come together as one united people..
Text C: Donald Trump Victory Speech
Understanding Context
Expletive lexis
(swear words)
Raising your voice
1. To your boyfriend/girlfriend
2. To the Prime Minister
1. In church
2. In a nightclub
Telling a mother in law joke
2. To a female feminist
1. To your best male friend

Authorship:
Who wrote the text?
What is their identity and how are they viewed?
Why would they write in this style?
Location:
Where is the text meant to be read?
How does this affect the reader response?
AO1: Apply appropriate methods of language analysis, using associated terminology and coherent
written expression.
• AO2: Demonstrate critical understanding of concepts and issues relevant to language use.
• AO3: Analyse and evaluate how contextual factors and language features are associated with the
construction of meaning.
• AO4: Explore connections across texts, informed by linguistic concepts and methods.
The New York travel guide seeks to______the hegemonic norm of the city being a____place. Thus, in the quotation______, the______ has connotations such as_____which makes the target demographic react with emotions of____and____because. Moreover, the liberal democratic values of this audience ensure that they react in a____manner to the text and its language choices.
Now have a go at writing a PQD, exploring how context
has affected the language choices...
Success criteria:
AO1: Use technical terms and connectives
AO2: Analyse the effects of the language
AO3: Discuss contextual factors and how
they have affected language.
Prefixes and Suffixes
Prefixes:
1. "Pre" as in "prehistoric"
2. "Anti" as in "antidote"
3. "Dis" as in "dissaprove"
Suffixes:
1. "Ful" as in helpful
2. "Ic" as in "elastic"
3. "Ness" as in "kindness"
Meaning of the prefix/suffix
*EXTRA MILE: Use your sheet to add your own entries
1. Pathology
2. Transport
"You've grown up before my very eyes"
Guest: "What are you lookin at?
JC: What?
"You look fantastic!"
A: Why don't you tidy your room?
B: Why don't you stop nagging,
and arguing?
Smart Start: Recapping Grice's Maxims
Is the pragmatic rule adhered to by the interlocutors, and why?

Is the pragmatic rule broken, and why?

What effect on tenor between interlocutors is created by breaking the rule?
Is the pragmatic rule stuck to by the interlocutors, and why?

Is the pragmatic rule broken, and why?

What effect on tenor between interlocutors is created by breaking the rule?
Q. How are Grice's maxims being subverted in this exchange?
Challenge Q:
What is the effect of Grice's maxims being subverted?
"Is it a dress, is it a...
Revision Task:
Research and print of a "transcript" of written language.
Annotate it thoroughly for use of: face, politeness, agreement principle and turn-taking.
Challenge Q:
How is the identity of Jeremy Kyle affecting the guest's language choices?
Challenge Q:
How does the identity
of the interlocutors affect turn-taking
and face?
"In one of the most bitterly contested elections of modern times, Donald Trump has been elected President of the United States. However, some countries are extremely scared of his potential unpredictability."
Extra Mile:
What do you think is the most powerful modifier, and how does it make the reader react to Donald Trunp?
Model PQD on Pragmatics
Grice's maxim of quantity is heavily subverted by speaker A, with the context of the argument, forcing them to go into an excessive amount of detail to prove their point. This is illustrated in the interrogative sentence: I never once forgot to repay that money, and what about my Chanel bag and Gucci sunglasses? Here, the coordinating conjunction "and" invites unnecessary proper noun phrases such as "Chanel bag" and Gucci sunglasses" that overload the conversation, and make it difficult for the interlocutor to respond to all points.
Full transcript