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The Universe

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Paige Gottlieb

on 10 June 2015

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Transcript of The Universe

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun
Mass: 330,104,000,000,000 billion kg (0.055 x Earth)
No known moons
One year is 88 days
Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System
Mercury's atmosphere contains small amounts of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen
Venus is the second closest planet to the sun
The mass is 4,867,320,000,000,000 billion kg (0.815 x Earth)
Surface Temperature of Venus is 462 °C
Venus has no known moons
The atmosphere of Venus is very hot and thick, you couldn't even breathe the air
Mass: 641,693,000,000,000 billion kg (0.107 x Earth)
Mars has 2 known moons named Phobos and Deimos
Surface Temperature: -87 to -5 °C

The Universe
Mass: 5,972,190,000,000,000 billion kg
One known moon, the moon
Surface Temperature: -88 to 58°C
the atmosphere is high above the planet, the atmosphere becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space
Auroras are a spectacular sign that our planet is electrically connected to the Sun
These light shows are provoked by energy from the Sun
and fueled by electrically charged particles trapped in Earth’s magnetic field
the inner core it is a primarily solid ball with a radius of about 1220 kilometers, or 760 miles (about 70% of the Moon's radius
The atmosphere of Mars is less than 1% of Earth’s, so it does not protect the planet from the Sun’s radiation nor does it do much to retain heat at the surface. It consists of 95% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen, 1.6% argon, and the remainder is trace amounts of oxygen, water vapor, and other gases. Also, it is constantly filled with small particles of dust(mainly iron oxide), which give Mars its reddish coloring
By: Paige G. & Molly C.
1,898,130,000,000,000,000 billion kg (317.83 x Earth)
Surface temperature -108°C
Known moons: 67 Io, Europa, Ganymede, & Callisto
Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in the solar system
First recorded in the 7th and 8th century
Mass: 568,319,000,000,000,000 billion kg
Has 62 known moons
Surface temperature is 139 degrees Celsius
The atmosphere of Saturn is 75% hydrogen and 25% helium and also some traces of water ice and methane
Notable Moons: Titan, Rhea & Enceladus
A fun fact is Saturn can be seen with the naked eye because it is the 5th brightest star in the solar system
Atmosphere of Jupiter
The atmosphere of Jupiter is the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System. It is mostly made of molecular hydrogen and helium.
Mass: 102,410,000,000,000,000 billion kg
Known Moons: 14
Known rings: 5
Surface Temperature: -201 °C
The atmosphere of Neptune is it mostly consists of hydrogen and helium, with trace amounts of methane, water, ammonia and other ices. But unlike the other gas planets in the Solar System, Neptune's atmosphere has a larger proportion of the ices.
Mass: 86,810,300,000,000,000 billion kg (14.536 x Earth)
Known Moons: 27
Discovered on March 13th 1781
Uranus is the coldest planet -224°C Uranus is nearly coldest planet
Only one space craft has ever went by Uranus
The atmosphere of Uranus is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium
The Sun
Age: 4.6 Billion Years
Type: Yellow Dwarf
Diameter: 1,392,684 km
Mass: 1,989,100,000,000,000,000,000 billion kg (333,060 x Earth)
Surface Temperature: 5500 °C
One million Earths could fit inside the Sun
The Sun is an almost perfect sphere
the sun is composed of several layers, mainly the photosphere, the chromosphere and the corona.
Mass:13,050,000,000,000 billion kg
Known Moons: 5
Notable Moons: Charon, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx
Diameter: 2,368 km
Surface Temperature: -229°C
Pluto is a dwarf planet
When Pluto is closer to the Sun in its orbit, the warmth from the Sun heats up the frozen ices of nitrogen, methane and carbon monoxide on Pluto's surface. These ices vaporize and form a temporary atmosphere. When Pluto moves farther from the Sun, the atmosphere freezes and falls back onto Pluto's surface.
Asteroids are small, rocky solar system bodies that populate interplanetary space out to the orbit of Jupiter.
The planetary science community refers to them as minor planets
Asteroids are mainly made of materials left over from the formation of the inner solar system
Asteroids continue to come close to Earth in their orbits
100,000–120,000 light-years in diameter
It is home to planet Earth
Mass: 400-800 billion solar masses (depending on measuring technique)
Number of Stars: at least 400 billion
The Milky Way has grown by merging with other galaxies through time
Our galaxy will collide with Andromeda Galaxy in about 5 billion years
Milky Way
A comet is a very small solar system body
Comets are made mostly of ices mixed with smaller amounts of dust and rock.
Most comets are no larger than a few kilometers across.
The main body of the comet is called the nucleus, and it can contain water, methane, nitrogen and other ices.
As a comet gets closer to the Sun, it begins to experience heat. That causes some of its ices to sizzle (similar to dry ice sizzling in sunlight). If the ice is close to the comet’s surface, it may form a small shot of material shooting out from the comet like a mini- jet
A meteoroid is a pebble to boulder-sized rock
Millions of meteoroids travel through Earth’s atmosphere each day.
Over the course of Earth’s history, many meteorites (large and small) have fallen to our planet’s surface. The most famous are the Allende, the Fukang, Hoba, and the Willamette Meteorite.
Asteroid Belt
The vast majority of asteroids in the solar system are found in a region of the solar system out beyond Mars.
The four largest asteroids in the belt are Ceres, Vesta, Pallas, and Hygiea.
There was a theory once that if you combined all the asteroids they would make up the missing “Fifth” rocky planet.
Planetary scientists estimate that if you could put all that material together that exists there today, it would make a tiny world smaller than Earth’s moon.
Dwarf Planets
There are 5 officially recognized dwarf planets in our solar system
The Dwarf Planets are Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake and Eris.
With the exception of Ceres, which is located in the asteroid belt, the other dwarf planets are found in the outer solar system.
The largest dwarf planet in the solar system could be either Eris or Pluto followed by Makemake and Haumea with the smallest being Ceres.
A satellite is an artificial object that is deliberately sent into orbit in space, usually in order to send, receive or bounce back information to different areas of Earth.
A satellite is an artificial object that is deliberately sent into orbit in space, usually in order to send, receive or bounce back information to different areas of Earth.
There are many satellites in orbit fulfilling a huge variety of functions. Satellite technology has now become a part of everyday life, enabling worldwide communications, global navigation, surveying and monitor as well as gathering data for weather forecasting, and many more applications.
A solar eclipse is a natural event that takes place on Earth when the Moon moves in its orbit between Earth and the Sun (this is also known as an occultation
It happens at New Moon
Depending on the geometry of the Sun, Moon, and Earth, there can be between 2 and 5 solar eclipses each year.
If any planets are in the sky at the time of a total solar eclipse, they can be seen as points of light.
Earth's Tides
The Earth's rotation and the gravitational pull of the sun and moon create tides
Because the moon is much closer to Earth than the sun, the moon exerts a much stronger gravitational pull.
The Earths ocean reacts to this by bulging and dipping against the moon

Earths movement
One of the important characteristics of the Earth is its movement. Seeing the Sun move through the sky is a result of the fact that the Earth rotates on its axis.
As with all planets in our Solar System, the Earth orbits or moves around the Sun. The Earth's axis is slightly tilted with respect to its orbit around the Sun, resulting in the change of seasons.
The time it takes for the Earth to make a complete rotation is approximately 24 hours (exactly 23.934 hours).
Since we are on Earth, we do not sense its rotation, but we experience it by observing the relative motion of the Sun. It is similar to what you experience when you are sitting in a moving automobile and see the surroundings move by.

What creates light?
Because everything we know about the universe comes from studying light (of all wavelengths), we need to know how light is created. There are three ways that astronomical objects make light. One way, called synchrotron emission, is only important in a few, very weird objects, so we won't bother with it. That leaves only two mechanisms that produce photons
If an object does not emit its own light (which accounts for most objects in the world), it must reflect light in order to be seen.
Reflection involves two rays - an incoming or incident ray and an outgoing or reflected ray.
It is very warm on Azeroth having an average of 90 degrees Fahrenheit
The people living there are pink and can fly
The people are not intelligent they are very dumb
There is water
The atmosphere is very thin
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