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TBA & Ballet
Transcript of TBA & Ballet
A study in Classical Ballet
Purpose and relevance
Catarina Machado de Oliveira
Dance performance is often associated with the practice of specific technical skills.
It is expected dance students to be able to perform in a simetrical way.
(Steinberg et al., 2012)
When children initiate dance practice there is a discrepancy in motor skills, namelly in terms of laterality.
An unexperienced dancer tends to demonstrate a clear preference for learning and practice skills on a particular side (Kimmerle, 2010).
The purpose of the present study was to study bilateral transfer of leraning (BTL) in classical ballet classes development of training techniques to promote movement symmetry.
Bilateral Transfer of Learning
The practice of a motor task with a body segment optimizes learning and performance of the homologous contralateral segment (Magill, 2011).
BTL is widely mentioned in research literature, in particular regarding the reasons why it occurs, or the direction of transfer
In classical Ballet, the teaching methodology tends to rely on the demonstration and practice of movements and technical elements on the right side, usually the preferred side. After learning and initial practice of a particular skill, students are expected to transfer it to the non-preferred side.
To exlpore whether the amount of learning transfered is symmetrical or asymmetric, [from the preferred member (PM) to the non-preferred member (NPM) or vice versa].
To study how the practice should be conducted in order to achieve the optimum performance of a specific motor skill (Vasconcelos, 2006).
In the context of the Classical Ballet, and despite the relevance of the BTL study as an instrument for performance optimization, there is not much research on this subject.
contribute to the body of knowledge regarding BTL;
to provide information that supports the adoption of classical Ballet teaching and practice strategies;
optimization of the training process.
Sample: 34 female right-handed children, aged from 6 to 11 years old (8.76 ± 1.52 years).
Dutch Handedness Questionaire (van Strien, 2002) e Lateral Preference Inventory (Coren, 1993).
The author and an accredited RAD teacher designed a questionnaire to evaluate exercise performance.
for preparing the questionnaire: RAD's vision and objectives (RAD, 2011).
technical capacity (posture, alignment, coordination and balance), music (timing, response time) and performance (expression and communication).
Lickert scale of 1 to 5 points; qualitative evaluation: "very poor (1), poor (2), sufficient (3), good (4) and very good (5)".
All performances were recorded on video. The videos were subsequently analyzed by two judges.
The task consisted in performing two exercises from Royal Academy of Dance (RAD) former curriculum.
to one condition;
was performed by an accredited RAD teacher;
In both treatment conditions, each student made 5 attempts in the learning phase, 5 in the retention phase and 1 attempt in the final evaluation (learning transfer stage), in which each participant performed the exercise to the opposite side to which they practiced, deprived of any additional instruction;
Learning transfer value
: average of the two evaluators' scores on the technical, music and performance parameters at the stage.
Software S.P.S.S. - 20.0 version;
Multivariate ANOVA to examine the effect of age and practice condition factors on BTL;
Level of significance: p ≤ 0.05;
Final score (BTL) in relation to the age
Final score (BTL) in relation to condition of practice
Results - Technique
Technical score in relation to age
Technical score in relation to condition of practice
Results - Musicality
Musical score in relation to age
Music score in relation to condition of practice
Results - Overall performance
Performance score in relation to age
Performance score in relation to the condition of practice
effects of the transfer condition, with higher transfer values in the NPM to PM direction;
effects of the age factor, with higher values of transfer in older dancers;
effects on the interaction of transfer condition and age variables.
The creation of an instrument that measures BTL through performance,
To increase the number of attempts in the acquisition and retention phases of motor learning, taking subjects' ages into consideration;
Increasing the sample size, covering other age groups and higher levels of expertise - investigating variations in the direction or quantity of information transferred throughout development;
To study the BTL and its relation with the manual preference, namely in left-handed or ipsilateral subjects;
To study the BTL in the Classic Ballet according to the sex;
Coren, S. (1993). The Lateral Preference Inventory for measurement of handedness, footedness, eyedness and earedness: norms for young adults. Bulletin of the Psychotomic Society, 31(1), 1-3.
Kimmerle, M. (2010). Lateral bias, functional asymmetry, dance training and dance injuries. Journal of dance medicine & science : official publication of the International Association for Dance Medicine & Science, 14(2), 58-66.
Magill, R. A. (2011). Motor Learning and Control (Nineth ed.): Mc-Graw Hill.
Steinberg, N., Siev-ner, I., Peleg, S., Dar, G., Masharawi, Y., Zeev, A., & Hershkovitz, I. (2012). Extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors associated with injuries in young dancers aged 8–16 years. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(5), 485-495.
van Strien, J. W. (2002). The Dutch Handedness Questionnaire. Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Vasconcelos, O. (2006). Aprendizagem motora, transferência bilateral e preferência manual. Brazilian Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20, 37-40.
How to go further
Bilateral transfer of learning
A study in classical Ballet
Catarina de Oliveira