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Introduction to Networking

Introduction to Networking, SOHO Routers, and Home Wireless Networks
by

Mark Mihov

on 19 October 2016

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Transcript of Introduction to Networking

The Modem
Introduction to Networking,
SOHO Routers,
and Home Wireless Networks

The modem is the first device in the network that allows us to connect to the Internet. Basically the modem converts the Ethernet signal into a signal that is used by our Internet Provider.
There are several different types of modems, such as T1, Cable, DSL,
4G/LTE or even Satellite.
Underneath the firewall is the Switch. You can think for the switch as a splitter of the Ethernet signal, which also allows the devices to communicate to each other.
There are different types of Switches, some are managed and other are unmanaged.
Behind the modem is the router. The router allows us to separate different networks (subnets). It also allows us to go out through it to the internet, but restricts the communication back from the internet to the Local Network.
Underneath the router is the firewall. The firewall, is a security device that is protecting the network from intruders. The
hardware
firewall, could restrict internet services for the entire network.
Desktop Computers
SOHO Routers (Small office/home office routers)
The first and most common option is the
SOHO Network Equipment
. In most of the cases these routers and modems are provided form the Internet Services Provider (
ISP
) and they contain all necessary logical devises to create a small wired and wireless network.
The configuration of this devices is extremely simple, and even sometimes they are coming reedy to work without any additional
setups.
Laptops
Mobile Devices
Network-attached storage (NAS)
The managed Switches allow us to login and make some configurations, such as port speed, creating VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks), QoS (Quality of Service),
and etc.
The unmanaged Switches are automatic and we can’t make any configuration on them.
Laptops
Mobile Devices
Mobile Devices
Laptops
Desktop Computers
Network Printers
Servers
Network-attached storage (NAS)
Another common example about logical and physical connection is our home routers and modems. They are containing all this logical devices such as a Modem, Router, Firewall, Switch and Wireless Access Point into one physical device.
This routers often are called SOHO Routers (Small office/home office routers).
The next concept that we would like to explain is the speed into the network.
The data is sized by two different types of measurement.

Bits (b) and Bytes (B) its take 8 Bits to be equal of 1 Byte
When we are talking about storage data (NAS, DVD and etc.), usually we are using Bytes.
When we are talking about internet speed usually we are using Bits.

Now let's go over few concepts. Within the computer world, we talk about how computer devices are connecting each other by the physical and the logical way.

The physical way
could be described as the hardware connection between the devices at the network.

The logical way
could be described as the protocols and the processes inside of your network, which are responsible for the connections of your devices and create rules for these connections.

And now when we have this basic knowledge about networking let's go a little deeper in to Home Wireless Networks.
There are several different ways to create a small home or office wireless network. I will go over the most popular options.

As we started using more and more sophisticated technologies at our homes and offices, we had to start thinking about the network equipment that connects all computers and mobile devices. This equipment connects all devices to each other and to the Internet. Today we are going to go over the equipment that we will find at an average small network.

First we would like to show you a basic diagram of simple network and how different components fit in it.
The Internet Cloud
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies.
Things like Websites, Emails, and VPNs reside at the Internet Cloud.
The Router
The Firewall
The Switch
The AP (Access Point) is usually connected to the Switch and allows wireless devices to connect to the network.
There are different standards for wireless. The name of the standard is 802.11 and the major
types of the standard are A, B, G,
N, AC.
Wireless Access Point
Usually for Ethernet network connection we are using Ethernet cables which are in different categories. They all have at least 4 twisted pairs and use RJ-45 cable connector. The most common category is CAT 5e UTP cable.
The Network Cables
The Wireless LAN Controller
Lightweight Access Point
For example, if you connect 20 computers into one switch, they will all be
physically
connected, but we could use software settings to split this switch at two separate networks, called VLANs
The computers from
VLAN #1
will not be able to communicate with the computers from
VLAN #2
. This is an example for
logical connections.

SOHO Routers
The second option is usually used when a wired network has been already built and we need to extend it to wireless. In that case we have to use wireless access points in order to connect our wireless devises to our network. There are two major types of access points such as Regular (non-mesh)
Wireless Access Points and
Wireless Mesh Access Points.
A regular AP should be connected to a Switch or Wireless LAN Controller then the proper configuration needs to be set up for the new wireless network such as SSID, Wireless Security Options, Wireless Channels, and frequencies, etc.
The important difference between this type and the mesh access point is that any regular AP needs to be wire
connected to the wired network in
order to transmit data to all
wireless devices.
In some large buildings, or places where it could be really difficult to use any cables, we are using
Wireless Mesh Access Points
. In this case we are talking about several units working all together and just few or one of them have been wire connected to our
wired network.
Regardless of the type we choose, we also need consider what the recruitments are for data throughput and coverage of the wireless network. Wireless standards such as 802.11ac provide high data throughput and range. Sometimes the highest quality of the product is also very important.
I recommend Cisco for best
results with the network
equipment.

This was an Introduction to Networking, SOHO Routers and Home Wireless Networks.

Thank you for your attention.
Full transcript