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Plant Systems - The Root and Shoot System

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Roshni Pendse

on 10 May 2013

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Transcript of Plant Systems - The Root and Shoot System

Cotyledons A cotyledon is a part of the embryo within the seed of the plant.

The number of cotyledons in a plant affect the appearance of the plant. The Root System Plant Tissues Leaves Flowers Fruits The Shoot System Monocotyledon Plant Systems: Chloroplasts inside the leaves are the main area where photosynthesis occurs. Flowers are specialized structures created for sexual reproduction. Most plants form seeds inside fruits.

During the reproduction stage, fruits are formed to contain the seeds and allow them to be transported and grown somewhere else.

Animals eat the fruits when they are ripe, and the seeds exit the animal's body inside its waste. The Root and Shoot System Dicotyledons Stem Diseases of the Shoot System Meristem Cells By: Sally, Mohit, Sunny, Ryan and Roshni Dermal Tissue Vascular Tissue Ground Tissue The root system generally grows below ground.
Its major functions are to:
anchor the plant to the ground
absorb minerals and water from the surrounding soil
store nutrients (in specific plants, such as carrots, radishes and turnips) A monocotyledon is a plant with one cotyledon, and is referred to as a monocot.

A monocot follows the taproot system:
1 main root growing vertically, with small, secondary root hairs. Blight Canker - stops the production of chlorophyll - Caused by bacteria or fungi - Leaves and branches whither - Forms in woody areas - Comes in the form of cracks, sunken areas, raised areas of dead or abnormal tissue - Everything above affected area will wilt and die The main functions of the shoot system include:
Conducting photosynthesis
Partaking in sexual reproduction Meristem cells are not considered tissue, but are a region consisting of meristematic cells.
The two kinds are:
- Apical meristem: Undifferentiated cells at the tip of plant roots and shoots
- Lateral meristem: Undifferentiated cells at the roots of woody plants and under the bark in the stem between xylem and phloem They contain either male or female reproductive structures: - male reproductive systems produce pollen - female reproductive systems produce eggs The eggs are fertilized by pollen and this process is called pollination. This process is called pollination, and can be performed with the help of wind or animals. Photosynthesis is the process in which carbon dioxide, energy in the form of light, and water are combined to produce glucose and oxygen. Thylakoids are disc-like structures located inside chloroplasts, and are arranged in a sunlight collecting arrangement called grana. A plant with a tap root A dicotyledon is a plant that has two cotyledons, and is referred to as a dicot.

Dicots follow the fibrous root system:
They have one primary root which dies. Lateral roots, called adventitious roots, go straight to the stem of the plant. All extensions of the root are almost equal in size. A plant with a
fibrous root The outermost layer is called the epidermis, and is the first level of protection against germs.

The cortex is the primary storage area for food and water and prevents water from entering the third area.

The vascular area is the innermost layer, and is made of vascular tissue. This is where absorbed water and minerals get transported to the rest of the plant. The dermal tissue system forms the outer surface of plants. There are two main parts:

The Epidermal Tissue (the epidermis) - thin covering of cells that cover leaf, stem, and root surfaces.
The Periderm Tissue - similar to epidermal tissue, but forms bark on woody plants on the stem and large roots.

Some epidermal root cells fine root hairs that absorb water/minerals.
Most epidermal leaf cells produce a layer of wax, called a cuticle to waterproof the leaf and prevent water loss. The stem transports water and nutrients up towards the leaves.
It also contains meristem cells, where new plants cells are made.

In some plants, the stem also stores nutrients and excess glucose. As well, it provides support for the leaves and flowers. The vascular system acts as a transportation system that moves sugar and other nutrients to all parts of the plant. It is a network of tubes from the roots, up the stalk, to the leaves.
There are two important tubes in this system:

The Xylem - is made of elongated cells that transport water/dissolved minerals up from the roots. It is formed of hollow tubes with walls when mature; there's no nucleus, cytoplasm or organelles. It becomes no longer living tissue.

The Phloem - transports solutions of sugars, hormones, nutrients throughout plant. Unlike the xylem, it can be transported down to stem and roots, or up to leaves. It is formed of elongated cells that are alive when mature, and still possess all cell parts. The ground tissue system acts as the filler between dermal and vascular tissues. It has different functions depending on where it's located:

In green parts, they manufacture nutrients by photosynthesis
In the roots, they store carbohydrates
In the stem, they provide storage and support The shoot system generally contains all parts of the plant above ground, such as the leaves, stem, flowers and fruits. Cotyledons Root Rot - Caused by soil fungi
- Spores are produced on diseased tissue, and are spread through wind, and can affect other plants
- More likely to occur when soil is compacted (less space for root growth)
- Can cause death of seedlings, and stunted growth, due to lessened root growth (so less nutrients are absorbed) Club Root - Affects vegetables and flowers in cabbage family
- Caused by fungus
- Causes plants to wilt, and leaves to yellow and fall
- Roots are distorted and swollen, preventing adequate water/mineral absorption
- Can be reduced by setting soil pH to 6.8 How Are These Systems Dependant on Each Other? After water and nutrients are absorbed through the root hairs (dermal tissue) by osmosis, they need to be transported to all parts of the plant to provide nutrition. This is achieved by the xylem (vascular tissue). When the nutrients reach the photosynthesizing material (ground tissue), they are used to create energy for the plant. The energy is used by the entire plant to survive As well, the release of waste gases is performed by the stomata (epidermal tissue), small openings in the surface of the plant that control gases entering and exiting the plant.

The root system obtains the useful materials for plant life, but the shoot system transforms the raw materials into a usable form. As well, the shoot system uses that energy to assist in reproduction. Diseases of the Root System
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