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Basic Life Support

2010 AHA Guidelines
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mj jones

on 6 November 2012

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Transcript of Basic Life Support

2010 AHA GUIDELINES BASIC LIFE SUPPORT Principles of Emergency Care Session 1 Introduction to Basic Life Support Session 2 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Session III Body Regions Human Body Respiratory Arrest Session IV Course Overview Legal Bases Policy: A.O. 155 s. 2004 “Basic Life Support Training is mandatory to all health workers”
HEMS Goal: “At least one member of each household shall be trained in BLS Types of BLS Training Courses:
A. Basic
> BLS Training for Healthcare Providers
*Medical
*Allied-medical professionals
> BLS Training for Lay Rescuers
*Non-medical personnel that can understand medium of instruction
* Able to perform the skills requirement
B. Training of Trainers COURSE OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the training, participants will be able to acquire knowledge, attitude , and skills necessary in an emergency to help sustain life and minimize the consequences of respiratory and cardiac emergencies until more advanced medical help arrives. > Describe the principles of Emergency Care.
> Identify the three kinds of life support,
> Five links of survival for adult and pediatric patients; and
> Discuss the human anatomy and physiology of the nervous, respiratory and circulatory systems. > Demonstrate how to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation to an adult, child & infant.
> Demonstrate how to provide rescue breathing (for health care provider only) alone for an adult, child & infant who show signs of circulation but have inadequate or not breathing > Discuss the indications, proper use and maintenance of Automated External Defibrillator (AED).
> Demonstrate how to provide abdominal thrust to conscious adult; chest thrust and backslaps to conscious infant; and chest thrust to unconscious adult, child and infant with obstructed airway. SCOPE & LIMITATION
a. Scope
> Six sessions including RB for Health Care Providers / Five Sessions without RB for Lay Rescuers
> Skills Demonstration
> Skills Practice & Evaluation
b. Limitation
> Those who are not physically fit & pregnant are not allowed to join. DURATION: 16 Hours in Total
First 8 hours - lecture, discussion and demontration of BLS techniques
*HCP - 6 sessions
*LR - 5 sessions
Next 8 hours - skills enhancement, written examination, and skills evaluation > Interactive Lecture-Discussion
> Audio Visual Presentation
> Demonstration and Return Demonstration
> Skills Enhancement
> Examination /Evaluation (Written and Practical)
> Integration of team building activities, energizers, & ice breakers Course Methodology Certificate of Attendance At least 90% attendance (10% absence/tardiness with valid reason/s; no >30 minutes/session) Certificate of Completion Those issued a Certificate
of Attendance and pass
the written and skill
examinations HOUSE RULES: 1. Do’s and Don’ts
2. Attendance and punctuality
3. Respect for Cultural Differences
4. Mobile phones (silent mode)
5. Dress code - smart and casual
6. Training session will start as scheduled Objectives At the end of this session, participants shall be able to:
1. Explain the procedure of getting started during emergency.
2. Describe the five emergency action principles.
3. Enumerate golden rules in giving emergency care.
4. Demonstrate how to do initial assessment of the victim.
5. Discuss the basic precautions in disease prevention. Getting Started Planning Emergency plan should be established based on anticipated needs and available resources. Provision of Logistics The emergency response begins with the preparation of equipment and personnel before any emergency occurs. Initial Response Ask for HELP.
Intervene
Do no further harm. Instructions to By-Standers Proper information and instruction to by -stander/s would provide organized first
aid care. Five Emergency
Action Principles 1. SURVEY THE SCENE 2. ACTIVATE MEDICAL ASSISTANCE 3. INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF THE VICTIM 4. SECONDARY ASSESSMENT OF THE VICTIM 5. REFERRAL FOR FURTHER EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT Survey the Scene Once you recognized that an emergency has occurred and decide to act, you must make sure the scene of the emergency is safe for you, the victim/s, and any bystander/s. Elements of the
Survey of the Scene > Scene safety.
> Mechanism of injury or nature of illness.
> Determine the number of patients and
additional resources. Activate Medical Assistance
or Transfer Facility In some emergency, you will have enough time to call for specific medical advice before administering first aid. But in some situations, you will need to attend to the victim first. Call First Care First Both trained and untrained bystanders should be instructed to Activate Medical Assistance as soon as they have determined that an adult victim requires emergency care “Call First”. While for infants and children a “Care First” approach is recommended. Information to be remembered in activating Medical Assistance:
> WHAT happened?
> LOCATION?
> NUMBER of Persons Injured?
> EXTENT of Injury and First Aid given?
> The TELEPHONE no. from where you are calling?
> PERSON who activated Medical Assistance must identify him/herself and drop the phone last…. HEMS Operation Center 711-1001
711-1002
651 7800 local 2206/2207 EMERGENCY HOTLINES
117 – DILG PATROL
168 – MAKATI C3 RESCUE
161 – MARIKINA RESCUE
136 – MMDA
9284396 – QUEZON CITY RESCUE
9275914 - SAGIP BUHAY
6411000 – PASIG CITY RESCUE
8338512 – PASAY CITY RESCUE
5270864 – PNRC ( Manila chapter) SPECIAL CONSIDERATION
For sudden collapse in victim of all ages, the lone HCP should
* call the emergency response number( e.g.161, 117, 168 or nearest hospital)
* use an AED, when readily available
* return to the victim to begin CPR (and use the AED )

For unresponsive victim of all ages with likely asphyxial arrest (e.g. drowning) the HCP should
* deliver at least 5 cycles (2 min.) of CPR before leaving the victim
* call the emergency response number
* use an AED, if available Initial Assessment of the Victim In every emergency situation, you must first find out if there are conditions that are an immediate threat to the victim’s life. Check for Responsiveness Perform Chest Compression Open Airway Perform Rescue Breathing 2nd Assessment of the Victim It is a systematic method of gathering additional information about injuries or conditions that may need care. a. Interview the victim
S - signs and symptoms
A - allergies M - medications
P - past medical history
L - last meal taken
E - events prior to injury or incident b. Check vital signs- every 15 minutes if stable condition, and every 5 minutes if unstable C. Head to Toe Examination
D- deformity
C- contusion
A- abrasion
P- punctures
B- burn
T- tenderness
L- laceration
S- swelling Referral of the Victim for
Further Evaluation and Management It refers to the transfer of a victim to hospital or health care facility if necessary for a definitive treatment. Golden Rules in Giving Emergency Care 1. Do obtain consent when possible
2. Do think of the worst
3. Do remember to identify yourself
4. Do provide comfort and emotional support
5. Do respect the victim( modesty and privacy)
6. Do be as calm and direct as possible
7. Do care for the most serious injuries first
8. Do assist the victim on medication
9. Do keep on lookers away from the injured person
10. Do handle the victim to a minimum
11. Do loosen tight clothing DO's 1. Do not let the victim see his/her injuries
2. Do not leave the victim alone except to get help
3. Do not assume that the victim’s obvious injuries are the only one
4. Do not make any unrealistic promises
5. Do not trust the judgment of a confused person DONT'S Precaution to Prevent
Disease Transmission Body Substance Isolation Are precautions taken to isolate or prevent risk of exposure from any other type of bodily substance using personal protective equipment (PPE). Basic Precaution Practices Personal Hygiene Protective Equipment Equipment Cleansing
and Disinfecting Were we able to:
1. Explain the procedure of getting started during emergency.
2. Describe the five emergency action principles.
3. Enumerate golden rules in giving emergency care.
4. Demonstrate how to do initial assessment of the victim.
5. Discuss the basic precautions in disease prevention. At the end of this session, participants shall be able to:
1. Explain the concept of the session.
2. Identify the three kinds of Life Support.
3. Identify the five links in the Chain of Survival for Adult and Pediatric patients.
4. Identify the anatomical positions, directions,
locations and regions of the human body.
5. Discuss the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory, circulatory, and nervous systems.
6. Discuss the Medical Conditions for applying Basic
Life Support Basic Life Support foundation for saving lives following cardiac arrest FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS
- immediate recognition of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and activation of the emergency response system
- early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
- and rapid defibrillation with an automated external defibrillator (AED). Three Kinds of Life Support 1. Basic Life Support (BLS)
2. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS)
3. Prolonged Life Support (PLS) A set of emergency procedures that consist of recognizing respiratory or cardiac arrest and the proper application of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) with or w/o Automated External Defibrillation (AED) or Foreign Body Airway Obstruction Management (FBAOM) and Rescue Breathing (RB) or to maintain life until a victim recovers or advanced life support is available. BLS ACLS A set of clinical interventions for the urgent treatment of cardiac arrest and other life threatening emergencies, as well as the knowledge and skills to deploy those interventions For post resuscitative and long term resuscitation with the use of adjunctive equipment such as ventilator, cardiac monitor, pulse oximeter etc. PLS Adult Chain of Survival Recognition Activation Early CPR Rapid Defibrillation Effective ACLS Integrated Post-Cardiac Care It is the event initiated after the patient’s collapse until the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel prepared to provide care. It is most effective when started immediately after the victim’s collapse. The probability of survival approximately doubles when it is initiated before the arrival of EMS. It is the cornerstone therapy for patients who have just suddenly collapsed probably due to ventricular fibrillation and pulse-less ventricular tachycardia. Provided by highly trained personnel like paramedics. Post cardiac arrest care after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) can improve the likelihood of patient survival with good quality of life. Pediatric Chain of Survival Prevention of Arrest Early CPR Rapid Access to EMS Rapid PALS Support Integrated Post-Cardiac Care Each link in the PEDIATRIC CHAIN OF SURVIVAL must be strong to maximize survival and a neurologically intact outcome after life threatening cardiovascular emergencies In children, the leading cause of death is injury, and vehicular accidents are the most common causes of fatal childhood injuries and child passengers’ safety seats can reduce the risk of death. It is most effective when started immediately after the victim’s collapse. The probability of survival approximately doubles when it is initiated before the arrival of EMS. It is associated with successful return of spontaneous circulation and neurologically intact survival in children. It is the event initiated after the baby collapse until the arrival of Emergency Medical Services personnel prepared to provide care. Initial steps in stabilization (provide warmth by placing baby under a radiant heat source, position head in a “sniffing” position to open the airway, clear airway w/ bulb syringe or suction catheter, dry baby and stimulate breathing Post cardiac arrest care after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) can improve the likelihood of patient survival with good quality of life. Human Body Anatomical Terms Position, Direction and Location of a Body Part 1. Anatomical Position
2. Superior
3. Inferior
4. Proximal
5. Distal
6. Anterior
7. Posterior
8. Medial
9. Lateral
10. Internal
11. External
12. Superficial
13. Deep
14. Supine position
15. Prone Position
16. Lateral Recumbent Human Body Anatomical Position Position, Location and Direction Supine Position Prone Position Lateral Recumbent Position * Brain * Spinal Cord * Lungs
* Heart * Liver * Intestines
* Kidney * Pancreas
* Stomach * Spleen * Bladder
* Rectum
* Reproductive
Organ Body Systems Nervous System Respiratory System Cardiovascular System Digestive System Urinary System Reproductive System Musculo-skeletal System Integumentary System It is composed of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. It has two major functions – communication and control. It lets a person be aware of and react to the environment. It coordinates the body’s responses to stimuli and keeps body systems working together. *Clinical death 0 - 1 min. - cardiac irritability 1 - 4 min. - brain damaged not likely 4 - 6 min. - brain damage possible *Biological death 6 - 10 min. - brain damaged very likely over 10 min. - irreversible brain damaged It delivers oxygen to the body, as well as removes carbon dioxide from the body. The passage of air into and out of the lungs is called respiration. Breathing in is called inspiration or inhalation. Breathing out is called expiration or exhalation. is the thin layer of muscle that separates the chest cavity containing the lungs and heart from the abdominal cavity containing the intestines and digestive organs. Diaphragm is the thin layer of muscle that separates the chest cavity containing the lungs and heart from the abdominal cavity containing the intestines and digestive organs. Trachea (windpipe) Breathing Air that enters the lungs contains:
> 21% O2
> trace of CO2 Air exhaled from the lungs contains:
> 16% O2
> 4% CO2 It delivers oxygen and nutrients to the body’s tissues and removes waste products. It consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Circulation absorb food and eliminate some waste products. Parts: Mouth , Salivary Glands, Pharynx, Esophagus, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Rectum that removes waste products. Parts : Kidney, Ureters, Urinary Bladder, Urethra the system that propagates species. Female:
- Ovary
- Fallopian Tube
- Uterus
- Vagina Male:
- Testicles
- Vas Deferens
- Seminal Vesicle
- Prostate Gland
- Urethra that gives form to the body, allow bodily movement, provide protection to the vital internal organs, produce red blood cells and serves as a reservoir of calcium, phosphorus and other important body chemicals. controls body temperature and appreciate sensation. Parts : Superficial epidermis, Deeper dermis Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
1. Risk factors that cannot be changed (Non-modifiable)
• Heredity • Age • Gender
2. Risk factors that can be changed (modifiable)
* Cigarette Smoking * Obesity
* Hypertension * Stress
* Diabetes Mellitus * Lack of Exercise
* Elevated cholesterol and triglyceride level Myocardial Infarction – it occurs when the oxygen supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) is cut–off for a prolonged period of time. This cut-off results from a reduced blood supply due to severe narrowing or complete blockage of the diseased artery. The result is death (infarction) of the affected part of the heart. Warning Signals Chest discomfort characterized by: • Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or tightness, aching, crushing, constricting, oppressive or heavy. • Sweating • Nausea • Shortness of breath Firs Aid Management • Recognize the signals of heart attack and take action. • Have patient stop what he or she is doing and have him/her sit or lie down in a comfortable position. Do not let the patient move around. • Have someone call the physician or ambulance for help • If patient is under medical care, assist him/her in taking his/her prescribe medicine/s. Medical Conditions when Applying BLS 1. When a patient with the following Respiratory conditions are in distress: Bronchitis, Pneumonia, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) ---- perform Rescue Breathing / CPR
2. Cardiac arrest ---- perform CPR 3. Anatomical Obstruction – when the tongue drops back and obstructs the throat. Others causes are acute asthma, croup, diphtheria, swelling and whooping cough. --- perform Rescue Breathing / CPR 4. Mechanical Obstruction – when foreign objects lodge in the pharynx or airways; fluids accumulate in the back of the throat * If conscious adult /child, perform Abdominal Thrust or Rescue Breathing
* If unconscious adult/child, perform chest thrust (CPR)* If conscious infant, perform chest thrust and back slap* If unconscious infant, perform, chest thrust (CPR) 5. Other causes:
* Electrocution, electric shock or lightning strikes
* External strangulation
* Drowning
* Poisoning
* Suffocation
* Chest compression by other physical forces Other causes may be treated by doing either rescue breathing, cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation, abdominal thrust, or chest thrust and back slap depending on the situation Focus: Basic CPR and Defibrillation
1. Check for responsiveness
2. Activate Emergency Response System
3. Call for defibrillator PRIMARY SURVEY C =Circulation: Give chest compressions 30:2
A=Airway: Open airway
B=Breathing: Check breathing
Provide 2 positive pressure ventilations
D=Defibrillation: Assess for & Shock VF & Pulseless VT WERE YOU ABLE TO:
1. Explain the concept of the session.
2. Identify the three kinds of Life Support.
3. Identify the five links in the Chain of Survival for Adult and Pediatric patients
4. Identify the anatomical positions, directions, locations and regions of the human body.
5. Discuss the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory, circulatory, and nervous systems.
6. Discuss the Medical conditions for applying Basic Life Support At the end of this session participants should be able to:
*Define cardiopulmonary resuscitation
*Perform correct cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques to an adult, child and infant who are in cardiac arrest
*Discuss other alternative forms of CPR
*Enumerate the criteria for when to start, not to start and when to stop CPR C
P
R is series of assessments and interventions using techniques and maneuvers made to bring victims of cardiac and respiratory arrest back to life Adult BLS Sequence Immediate recognition and Activation of the Emergency Response Sytem (EMS) - Establish scene safety first
- Check for a response by tapping the victim on the shoulder and shouting at the victim
- Simultaneously look for no breathing or gasping
- Activate EMS Check for Responsiveness ADULT and CHILD BLSTap the shoulders to check for responsivenessINFANT BLSTap the sole of the feet to check for responsiveness Pulse Check Adult BLS
Check for Carotid Pulse
Pedia BLS & Child BLS
Check for Carotid pulse
Infant BLS
Check for Brachial Pulse Early CPR Chest Compressions
Push Hard Push Fast
Rate: at least 100/min should take 15-18 sec
Depth: at least 2 inches or 5cm for Adults
Depth: at least 1/3 of the AP diameter of the chest
Infants: 1 inches(4cm)
Children: 2 inches(5cm)Allow complete chest recoilMinimize interruptions - “Look, Listen, and Feel” removed from the BLS algorithm
- Sequence change to chest compressions before rescue breaths CAB
C : Circulation
A : Airway
B : Breathing
- rather than ABC Changes of BLS 2012 from 2005 Rationale:
* Early CPR improves the likelihood of survival.
* Chest Compressions are the foundations of CPR.
* Compressions create blood flow by increasing intra-thoracic pressure and directly compress the heart; generate blood flow and oxygen delivery to the myocardium and brain * Core concept: Oxygen to the Brain!* In order: Compression-Airway-Breathing* These build on each other.* “You cannot breathe for a patient or assess breathing without first opening the airway.”* ALWAYS FOLLOW YOUR CAB’s!!! CIRCULATION represents a heart that is actively pumping blood, most often recognized by the presence of a pulse in the neck Assume there is no CIRCULATION if the following exist: Unresponsive, Not breathing, Not moving and Poor skin color Rescue Breaths
Deliver rescue breath over 1 second
Allow visible chest rise
Compression:Ventilation ratio of 30:2
5 cycles or 2 minutes CHEST COMPRESSION
* Kneel facing the victim’s chest
* Place the heel of one hand on the sternum in the center of the chest between the nipples and then place the heel of the second hand on top of the first so that the hands are overlapped and parallel.
* Position shoulders over hands with elbows locked and arms straight
* Compress down and release pressure smoothly, keeping hand contact with chest at all times AIRWAY * This must be done to ensure an open passage for spontaneous breathing OR mouth to mouth during CPR
* Head-Tilt/Chin-Lift Tilt the head back with your hand and lift up on the chin
* Jaw Thrust Maneuver if considering spinal injury. Strictly a Healthcare Provider technique and not for Lay Rescuers (if suspected with cervical trauma) BREATHING * Maintain airway
* Pinch nose shut
* Open your mouth wide, take a normal breath, and make a tight seal around outside of victim’s mouth
* Give 2 full breaths (1 sec/ breath)
* Observe chest rise Continue CPR until
* AED arrives and is ready for use
* EMS providers take over the care of the victim
Cycles of 30 compressions:2 ventilations should be continued until an advanced airway is placed
* Continuous compressions
* Ventilation rate of 1 breath every 6 to 8 seconds 1 and 2 Rescuer Adult CPR 1. Establish scene safety.
2. Introduce self to establish authority.
3. Determine unresponsiveness (movement & breathing)
4. IF unresponsive and not breathing or gasping, call for HELP! Activate EMS and get the AED
5. Pulse check within 10 seconds (for HCP).
6. Perform 30 Compressions on the chest
7. Open Airway- Head/Tilt chin lift and perform 2 Rescue Breaths
8. Do this for 5 cycles or approx. 2 minutes. Rescuer may switch roles.
9. Do this until AED/Defibrillator arrives, ALS provider takes over, or victim starts to move.
10. If patient becomes conscious, place patient in recovery position Pediatric CPR CHILD CPR
Lower half of the sternum, between the nipples.
Depth: 1/3 of the AP Diameter of the chest2 inches (5 cm) depth
One hand only/ two hands
30:2 for single rescuer, 15:2 for 2-man rescuer (optional for HCP). INFANT CPR
Just below the nipple line, lower half of sternum
Depth: 1/3 of the AP Diameter of the chest
1 1/2 inches (4 cm) depth
Two fingers, flexing at the wrist (lone rescuer)
2-thumbs hand encircling technique (two rescuers) 1 Rescuer Pediatric CPR 1. Survey the scene.
2. Introduce Self
3. Check for responsiveness
4. IF unresponsive and not breathing or gasping, call for HELP! Activate EMS and get the AED.If you are a lone rescuer do 5 cycles of CPR before calling for help
5. Perform 30 Compressions on the chest
6. Open Airway -Head/Tilt chin lift and perform 2 Rescue Breaths
7. Do this for 5 cycles or approx. 2 minutes.
8. Do this until AED/Defibrillator arrives, ALS provider takes over, or victim starts to move. 2 Rescuer Pediatric CPR 1. Survey the scene.
2. Introduce Self
3. Check for responsiveness
4. IF unresponsive and not breathing or gasping, call for HELP! Activate EMS and get the AED.
5. 1st Rescuer performs 15 chest Compressions ( for infant victims do two thumbs CPR)
6. 2nd Rescuer opens the Airway- Head/Tilt chin lift and delivers 2 Rescue Breaths
7. Do CPR 15:2 for 10 cycles or approx. 2 mins.
8. Reassess for less than 10 secs. Rescuers may switch roles
9. Do this until AED/Defibrillator arrives, ALS provider takes over, or victim starts to move.
10. If patient becomes conscious, place patient in recovery position Alternative CPR Compression-only CPR:
- Outcome is better than outcome of NO CPRLay rescuers should do compression-only if they are unwilling or unable to provide rescue breaths Table of Comparison on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Dont's in External
Chest Compression 1. Jerker
2. Massager
3. Bender
4. Rocker
5. Bouncer
6. Double Crosser Recovery Position (Adult & Child) When NOT to start CPR All victims of cardiac arrest should receive CPR unless:
1. Patient has a valid DNAR (Do Not Attempt Resuscitation) order.
2. Patient has signs of irreversible death (Rigor Mortis, Decapitation, Dependent Lividity).
3. No physiological benefit can be expected because the vital functions have deteriorated as in septic or cardiogenic shock.
4. Confirmed gestation of < 23 weeks or birth weight < 400 grams, anencephaly.
5. Attempts to perform CPR would place the rescuer at risk of physical injury. When to STOP CPR S - SPONTANEOUS signs of circulation are restored
T -TURNED over to medical services or properly trained and authorized personnel
O - OPERATOR is already exhausted and cannot continue CPR
P - PHYSICIAN assumes responsibility (declares death, takes over, etc.)
S – SCENE becomes unsafe (such as traffic, impending or ongoing violence—gun fires, etc)
S – SIGNED waiver to stop CPR Were We Able To:
1. Define cardiopulmonary resuscitation
2. Perform correct cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques to an adult, child and infant who are in cardiac arrest
3. Discuss other alternative forms of CPR
4. Enumerate the criteria for when to start, not to start and when to stop CPR & Rescue Breathing At the end of this session, participants shall be able to correctly:
> Explain the concept of rescue breathing;
> Describe what is Respiratory Arrest and its causes;
> Discuss the significance of Rescue
> Breathing in respiratory arrest;
> Identify the different ways in ventilation;
> Demonstrate Rescue Breathing techniques for an adult, child, & infant. Respiratory Arrest Is the condition in which breathing stops or is inadequate Causes: 1. Obstruction
1.1 Anatomical
1.2 Mechanical
2. Diseases
2.1 Bronchitis
2.2 Pneumonia
2.3 COPD
3. Other causes
3.1 Electrocution
3.2 Circulatory Collapse
3.3 Strangulation
3.4 Chest Compression ( by other physical force )
3.5 Drowning
3.6 Poisoning
3.7 Suffocation Rescue Breathing > Is a technique of breathing air into a person’s lungs to supply him or her with the oxygen needed to survive.
> Given to victims who are not breathing or inadequate but still have pulse.
> Crucial tool to revive the individual or keep him or her until the help comes. Ways to Ventilate the Lungs Mouth to Mouth Mouth to Nose Mouth to Mouth and Nose Mouth to Stoma Mouth to Face Shield Mouth to Mask Bag Valve Mask Device Special Considerations > Rescuer to avoid pressing soft tissue under the chin this might obstruct the airway
> Rescuer not to use the thumb to lift the chin
> Rescuer not to close the victim’s mouth completely (unless mouth to nose is the technique)
> Each rescue breath should give enough air to make the chest rise and be given at 1 second;
> Rescuer should avoid delivering more breaths (more than the number recommended) or breaths that are too large or too forceful.
> Rescuers should take a normal breath (not a deep breath) mouth to mouth or mouth-to-barrier device rescue breaths. Table of Comparison on Rescue Breathing Were we able to:
* Explain the concept of rescue breathing;
* Describe what is Respiratory Arrest and its causes;
* Discuss the significance of Rescue
* Breathing in respiratory arrest;
* Identify the different ways in ventilation; and
* Demonstrate Rescue Breathing techniques for an adult, child, & infant.
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