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The Analysis of a Back Handspring

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marche graham

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of The Analysis of a Back Handspring

Movement Analysis of a Back Handspring
Phase 1: Muscles & Joints
Serratus (Anterior)
Rhomboid major & minor
Pectoralis Minor
Latissimus Dorsi
Anterior Deltoid
Medial Deltoid
Pectoralis major & minor
Rhomboid major & minor
Levator Scapulae

Biceps Brachii
Pronator Teres

*The back handspring is a skill used very heavily in cheerleading and gymnastics. Cheerleading was introduced in 1898 at the University of Minnesota. Gymnastics was introduced to the United States in the 1830s. The first large scale competition was 1896 in Athens, Greece.
*The backhandspirng is part of a progression to more difficult skills . It is performed numerous times in training and competition.

Phase 2: The Jumping Back Phase
-Phase 2 begins with momentum to arch back and reach for the floor
-Body is still very tight
-Pointed toes and extended through ankles
-Keeping head back between arms (essential while reaching for the floor)
-Hands and wrist touch floor
(Large compressive forces at the wrist and hand)
-Elbows flex slightly to absorb shock
(strength is required to resist too much flexion which may cause injury and/or a failed attempt at the skill)
-Momentum from phase 1 keeps the body rotating backwards

Phase 1
Phase 1: The Set
*The starting position of a back handspring should have the body being straight and upright.
*The skill begins with the backward sit as if an imaginary chair was beneath you.
*You then bring the arms forward and go into a seal position as you lean backwards.
*While swinging your arms over your head as you extended off the floor by exerting energy from your legs and a strong hip thus using you abdomen muscles. Tightening of the arms and shoulder muscles while driving up and back .

Phase 2: Muscles & Joints
Joint movements
Extension in shoulders
Extension in hips, knees, elbows
plantar flexion of ankles
Hyperextension in the neck and spine
Pronation in both wrist
-Shoulder Girdle
Rhomboid major and minor, Trapezius
posterior Deltoid
teres major
teres minor
-Elbow Joints
Triceps Brachii, Anconeous, Pronator teres
Internal Oblique
External Oblique
Gluteus Maximus
Biceps Femoris

Phase 3: The handstand phase
Phase 3 uses the momentum from phase 1. The momentum allows passage through the handstand position.
Hands then press on the floor thus creating adequate momentum to continue the movement.
Phase 3: Muscles and Joints
Joint movement
Extension in wrist and elbows
Flexion in hips and shoulders
slight extension of the knees
Flexion of the trunk

-Shoulder Girdle
Levator Scapulae, upper trapezius( used to elevate and upwardly rotate the scapula) (extend the neck)
Latissimus Dorsi, Deltoids
-Elbow Joints
triceps brachii
Iliopsoas, Pectineus, Adductor Brevis , Adductor Longus ,Adductor Magnus ,Rectus Femoris
Vastus Lateralis
Vastus Intermedius
Vastus Medialis
Rectus Femoris
Tensor Fascia latae
Internal and external oblique causes flexion to the lumbar spine
-Hand and wrist
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
Extensor carpi Ulnaris
Palmaris Longus

Phase 4: The Snap down
-The snap down phase purpose is to snap your legs over and into the ground quickly.
-Phase 4 requires you shoulders, arms and legs to be tight to cut through the air as they travel toward the floor.
-Feet touch the floor causing the head and trunk to come up which transitions into phase 5
Phase 4: Muscles and Joints
Joint Movement
Flexion in the hips, knees, ankles, shoulders, and elbows
Upward rotation and elevation shoulders
-Shoulder Girdle

Serratus anterior, Upper & lower trapezius, levator scapula *
Anterior deltoid, Pectoralis major

Triceps,, Anconeus

Illiopsoas, Gluteal maximus, Gluteal minimus, Gluteus medius and Pectineus
Biceps Femoris , Semitendonosus, semimembranosus


Transverse and Rectus Abdominus

Phase 5: The Rebound Phase
In this phase you should come out of the snap down phase by pushing off the mats with your hands releasing contact with the floor

Phase 5: Muscles and Joints
Joint Movements
hips, knees slightly flexed
flexion of the shoulders
elbow extended
hand and wrist flexed
Dorsiflexion of the ankles
Lower and upper trapezius, Serratus anterior
Anterior deltoid, Pectoralis major, Biceps Bachii ( short head)
Latissimus Dorsi, Teres major, Posterior deltoid, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor,
Triceps Brachii
Illiopsoas, Gluteal maximus, Gluteal minimus, Gluteus medius and Pectineus
Biceps Femoris , Semitendonosus, semimembranosus
Sartorious, Gracilis, Gastrocnemius, Plantaris , popliteus
Extensor Digitorum Longus , Peroneus tertius , Extensor Hallicis Longus
-Hand and Wrist Joint:
Flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficials, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus

Phase 2
Phase 3
Common Mistakes

-Flipping upward instead of back, causing you to flip in one place thus landing on your knees.
-Having a weak upper body can cause you to bend your elbows thus causing you to either land on your head or on your knees.
Training Exercises
-Hand stand push-ups
-push ups
-Whip downs
These training exercises help because most of the strength used to complete a neat back handspring comes from having good upper body strength and good core muscles.
Hand and wrist joint
Palmaris Longus
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
Flexor Digitorum Profundus
Flexor Pollicis Longus

Lower half
Quadriceps Femoris : Vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, and rectus femoris

Hamstrings: bicep femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranous Gastrocnemius, Gluteus Maximus

Joint movements
Flexion of hips, knees, hand/wrist, and ankles
Extension of shoulders
Flexor Digitorum Longus
-Hand and wrist
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Flexor Digitorum Superficials
Flexor Digitorium Profundus
Full transcript