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Hardware components and external components of a computer system

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Manjit Rerhu

on 23 June 2014

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Transcript of Hardware components and external components of a computer system

Hardware components and external components of a computer system
Power Supply Unit
Fan And Heat Sink/Cooling
RAM- This stands for random access memory. It is a short term memory for the computer. It also provides temporary data storage which is accessible through the CPU. In addition RAM is used when a computer program is opened by the user. And when your PC is switched off the data is then erased so as long as your computer is turned on it will continue to do its job, but when you switch it off the data is lost.
ROM- This stands for read only memory. It stores small amount of data in computers. ROM can not be modified, it also retains data when the computer is switched off.
CACHE- This stores data which is most recently stored on the computer, also stores data which is used frequently and therefore allowing the CPU to access it quicker.
Network Interface Card
Hard Drive Configuration And Controllers
SATA- This stands for serial advance technology attachments. It is a L shape cable which allows optical drives to be connected to the computer.

IDE- This stands for integrated drive electronics. It is a standard electronic interface for compatible hard drives, it can also connect directly to the motherboard

EIDE- This stands for enhanced integrated drive electronics. The EIDE is an improved version of IDE and is much faster than IDE.

Master Drive- The master drive basically controls the data which is passing through the IDE cable and retains its own data which is passed to the slave drive.

Slave Drive- The slave drive basically sees the data which is passed from the master drive.
Graphics Card
Serial Port
Parallel Port
USB Port
BIOS stands for basic input/output system. The function of it is to load the operating system when the computer is switched on.
An example of a operating system is Windows 7
The fan is used so all the components in the base unit cool down the components, therefore the components do not overheat or melt. Without the fan all the components inside of the base unit will get destroyed and may not work again.
The heat sink and processor are both attached to the fan. The heat sink draws heat from the processor and then keeps its temperature down.
The processor is the brain of the computer, it is a chip on the motherboard which controls everything. The processor carries out instructions and makes decisions. With the new processors, the voltage has be reduced and the memory has increased, making the computer faster and efficient.
The motherboard is the most important component in the computer as everything is connected to it. It is a printed circuit board which makes other components work such as the CPU, BIOS or RAM. Without the motherboard the computer is nothing and having all the other components, they will be no use of them.
USB stands for universal serial bus. This allows you to connect devices and transfer data across to each other, it is can also be used for other purposes such as charging mobile phones and other devices.
The power supply unit converts the wattage from the mains which is 230V to 12V . The power supply unit is at the back of the computer as it supplies power for the computer to turn on.
The Graphics card is a piece of hardware that is delivers the image that you see on your monitor. The better the graphics card the higher the resolution it will will display, however this may also depend on your screen as well.
The parallel port allows 8 bits of data to pass through it at one time. It has 25 pins and allows a printer for example to connect to it or any other external devices.
The serial port allows 1 bit of data to pass through it. This port has 9 male pins whereas the serial has 25.
The network card allows you to gain access to your local network. There are two types, one is wired where you will need an Ethernet cable in order to gain access and the second is wireless where you will not need an Ethernet cable to connect but needs to reach the router in order to gain access.
The mouse is used to control the computer, it is the little pointy arrow which you control from the mouse to click on places you want to go, ie. if you left click it will open icons and if you right click it will open the menu for options to choose from. The mouse is important device to run a computer, without it you will not be able to use the computer.
The monitor is used for viewing graphical images and videos. A computer monitor has a symbol to on/off the monitor and other additional buttons for other options to adjust the screens brightness and colour or even the volume. The higher the screens resolution the better the graphics and quality of the computer screen.
A keyboard is a external input device that is used to type data on the computer. A keyboard has letters from A-Z, however is not arranged in alphabetical order. A keyboard also has numbers along the top as well but some have it on the right hand side. It also has common symbols used in everyday transcription. The keyboard is connected to the computer via usb cable so it is not wireless.
The computer base is essential to working the computer itself, it has all the computer components that is needed to work the computer. For example, it has the CD ROM to read cd's, it has RAM to support applications, it has the motherboard which is essential as it holds all the computer components so it can operate. Also it has a power supply to turn on the computer and make it work, it has ports so you can slot your usb in.
Computer Base
Internal Hard drive:
This is located in a computer system which normally contains pre-installed software applications, such as the operating system. It also stores data onto your computer, they are non-volatile so this means they do not require a source of power. Additionally, they use a SATA interface, hard drives are commonly available in 2.5 inch or 3.5 inch in order to use a SATA. The internal hard drive is important because it stores data onto your PC and if it corrupts you will lose all your data unless if you do have back up of the data.
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