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Causes and Effects of 19th Century Latin American and Caribb
Transcript of Causes and Effects of 19th Century Latin American and Caribb
Carianne Boehme, Noor Kantar,
Libby Rogers, Leah Vricos
European domination of
Haitian Revolution (L'Overture)
Spread of Enlightenment ideas from the United States
Napoleon invades Spain, Spain sets up colonies in Latin America
Strong leaders in Latin America want independence
American and French revolutions
Were descendants of Europeans born in Latin America who lived their permanently. Found the principles of equality of all people in the eyes of the law, free trade, and a free press very attractive.
José de San Martín
(1778-1850) Argentinian general, governor, and patriot that led his nation during the war of Independence of Spain
(1743-1803) One of the leaders of the Italian revolution and the first black to become governor of a colony. He led an unusual revolution that took place in the French colony of Saint Dominigue.
(1783-1830) Venezuelan military leader who was active in the revolutions against the Spanish empire. Played a key role in Latin Americas struggle for independence from the Spanish empire.
Latin American independence movement
US President acted alone in 1823. James Monroe guaranteed the independence of the New Latin American nations and warned against any European intervention in the Americas.
Sucre goes on to win the engagement at Ayacucho, Peru on December 9.
Gran Colombia is next (includes Venezuela and Ecuador). On June 24 1821, Bolivar wins a battle at Carabobo.
In 1819, Bolivar and his force of 2500 men crossed Orinoco. On the 7th of August, they come to an unsuspecting enemy and the Spanish army surrenders at Boyaca.
Bolivar and San Martin both raised armies to drive the Spanish out of Latin America to establish autonomous governments
3 days later, Bolivar goes to Bogota and on December 17 the Republic de Colombia is pronounced.
On May 24 1822, Bolivar and his general Antonio Jose de Sucre win a victory at Pichincha and gain control of Quito.
Ecuador is a free republic now.
On September 1823, Bolivar goes to Lima and pledges a "free and sovereign Peru."
Him and his staff win a victory during August 1824, and he leaves the rest of the campaign to Sucre.
After Ayacucho, the Spanish armies surrender and almost all of Latin America is independent.
Fun Fact: On August 6 1825 Upper Peru is named Republica Bolivar (today's Bolivia) after Simon Bolivar.
San Martin reaches Argentina in 1812 and creates an army. He planned on using the army to defeat the Spanish in and around Peru.
San Martin tries to secure his hold on Peru while Bolivar is coming south to complete the conquest of New Granada (Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela).
Bolivar and San Martin both want the Harbour of Guayaquil. Bolivar gets there first, and when San Martin gets their, they deliberate for two days.
On July 9 1816, Argentina is independent and he begins to train the army for the attack against the Spanish in Peru.
July 1821, San Martin enters Lima and on the 28 he proclaims Peru independent with him being the "Protector."
Bolivar and San Martin believe them together are "too big for Peru." They both want the liberation of Latin America from the Spanish.
San Martin knows Bolivar is the better general and offers to serve under Bolivar. Bolivar rejects, San Martin becomes unhappy and in 1822 he resigns as "Protector" of Peru and retires in Europe.
These are the military leaders that ruled Latin America in the 19th century after the Independence movement against Spain.
They used force to get the change they
wanted and ruled by Military force.
He was known as the
He was the leader of the only successful slave revolt in history.
He was inspired by the French Revolutionary ideas.
L'Overture joined the slave insurgency and became a capable soldier as well as a military secretary.
From 1794 to 1802, L'Overture allied with France against Spain. He was the dominant political and military leader in the colony.
He was a brilliant winning 7 battles in 7 days.
A new leader came into France, Napoleon and ruled with dictatorial powers.
He reinstated slavery in the French colonies when plantation owners pleaded for it, which stirred up war in Haiti.
In 1803, Napoleon and Toussaint came in terms of Peace, and Napoleon agreed to recognize Haitian Independence. Toussaint agreed to retire from public life.
After the fact, Toussaint was tricked by Napoleon and locked away in a dungeon
loss of people, property, and livestock
L'Overture led Slave revolts in Haiti
Bolivar, San Martin and other leaders led successful revolts
Latin American and Haiti win independence
Caudillos take over power
Colonial rule ends in Latin America
This map shows how Latin America gained independence.
This painting was done by Arturo Michelena a Venezuelan painter (1863)
This painting was done by Jean Baptiste Madou a Belgian Painter (1828)
This painting was made by Frank Girardin an American artist
Topic 1 Period:5