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Transcript of Frederick Griffith
Who was Frederick Griffith?
Born in Hale, Lancashire county, England
Attended Liverpool University
epidemiology and pathology of bacterial pneumonia
Discovered the transforming principle
Overview of Experiment
Two strains of pneumococcus
the “smooth” strain were killed by heat
the remains were added to the “rough” strains bacteria
Neither alone were capable of killing the host
capable of killing the host
“rough” strain bacteria (non-lethal) transformed into lethal “smooth” strain bacteria
capable of transferring genetic information through a process called transformation.
Led to the discovery of bacterial strains being altered, and their function changing (instead of developing a vaccine through this experiment)
Conducted the first widely accepted bacterial transformation
One of the first experiments suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information (transformation)
Evidence ultimately lead to the discovery of DNA being genetic material
Today, genetic engineering involves the transferring of DNA which is widely based on the work performed by Griffith
Create more effective antibiotics to treat bacterial infections
Transformations help scientists find new cures/treatments
Progress against puerperal fever, scarlet fever, surgical sepsis and infections from wounds
Led to the discovery of how DNA works
Beginning of modern molecular biology
The Importance of Griffith's Research Today
Genetic alteration of a cell
direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
taken up through the cell membrane(s)
Occur naturally in some species of bacteria
affected by artificial means in other cells
Bacteria must be in a state of competence
Might occur as a time-limited response to environmental conditions such as starvation and cell density
Yemsrach Asheber, Janat Ibrahimi, Isabel Lim, Alison Wong
Further Work and Legacy
In 1931 he coauthored a paper on acute tonsillitis
In 1941 he reported numerous findings on the serological typing of Streptococcus pyogenes
The exact nature of the transforming principle (DNA) was verified by Avery, McLeod and McCarty and by Hershey and Chase
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