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Diseases of the Eyes and Skin

Microbiology Project

Ariane Beard

on 1 July 2016

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Transcript of Diseases of the Eyes and Skin

Chickenpox typically requires no medical treatment, although may be prescribed an antihistamine to relieve itching. Doctors may prescribe medications to shorten the duration of the infection to immunocomprimised and pregnant individuals.
Diseases of the Eyes and Skin
Ariane Beard, Natalie Stevenson, and Julia Davis
Caused by: HPV virus
(direct contact, indirect contact, or autoinoculation)
Warts (papillomas)
Ringworm (Dermatophytisis)
Caused by:
fungal infection that varies from one location to another and is not restricted to one genus or species
Symptoms: scaly patches, severe inflammation, destruction of hair, temporary to permanent hair loss, scaly red rings on body, mild to pustular patches white to deep, blisters
Treatment: very challenging/avoid contact with the fungus, anti fungal agents, certain ointments, griseofulvin, gentle debridement of the skin
Scarlet Fever (Steptococcus pyongenes)
Maculopapular rash (sand paper like rash), most often on the neck, chest, elbows, and inner surfaces of the of the thighs
High fever
It most often affects school-age children. Most cases today are mild and easily recognizable.
Necrotizing fasciitis: (flesh-eating Disease)
Antibiotics are used to treat the bacteria. Crucial to treat so it does not cause rheumatic fever. With proper antibiotic treatment, the symptoms of scarlet fever should get better quickly. The rash can last for up to 2 - 3 weeks before it fully goes away and is accompanied by peeling.
Caused By
Known Causes:
bacterium called Group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis, Aeromonas hydrophila
S. Pyogenes (gram (+) coccus that grows in chains)strain that contains a bacteriophage carrying a gene for an exotoxin called erthrogenic toxin
is usually treated
immediately with
high doses of
if diagnosis is not
early enough,
surgical debridment
may be required to keep
from spreading
intense pain
tissue becomes swollen
Diarrhea and vomiting
inflammation, redness, swelling
hot skin
color may progress to violet
subsequent necrosis (death) of the subcutaneous tissues.
Treatments: can disappear on their own after 2-3 years, various home treatments (such as adhesive tape and salicyclic acid), cyrosurgery, various drugs (virus is not eliminated)
Symptoms: some cause pain if they are located in sensitive areas or on the bottom of feet, elevated rough growths
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
Caused by:
a endospore forming bacterium-
Clostridium perfringens (anaerobic), Staph (aureus) or Strep (pyogenes)
Skin discoloration —
ranging from pale to blue, purple,
black, bronze or red, depending on
the type of gangrene you have
Severe pain followed by a feeling
of numbness
A foul-smelling discharge leaking
from a sore
Chicken Pox (Varicella-zoster virus)
Different Types: dry gangrene, wet gangrene, gas gangrene, internal gangrene and necrotising fasciitis
Riverblindness: Onchoccera volvulus plus Wolbachia
It can be treated with antibiotics,
but that is usually after-the-fact
to prevent a re-occurance because
by the time you know you are
infected,it has spread too far for
the antibiotics to work. Surgical
debridment is required.
Caused by: Tissue Nematodes/ black flies carry the nematodes into humans by biting them
Caused By
Staph infection:
Fever, abdominal pain or loss of appetite, headache, malaise/irritability, dry cough and a rash on the scalp, face, and trunk and sparse crops on extremities. Skin lesions progress quickly from macules and papules to itchy vesicles filled with clear fluid which will encrust and drop off.
Caused By:
the bacterium known as Staphylococcus, usually S. aureus
Treatments: Various drugs such as Ivermectin and Mectizan. These drugs help to kill larvae and help control the spread of infection
Different Types: Impetigo, Boils,
Cellulitis, Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
Boils: Skin becomes red and swollen.
If a boil breaks open, it may drain pus,
blood or an amber-colored liquid.
Impegito: usually feature large blisters that may ooze fluid and develop a honey-colored crust.
Cellulitis: skin redness and swelling on the surface of your skin. Sores (ulcers) or areas of oozing discharge may develop.
Staphylococcal Scalding Skin Syndrome:
Affecting mostly newborns, this condition
features fever, a rash and sometimes blisters.
When the blisters break, the top layer of skin
comes off — leaving a red, raw surface that looks
like a burn
Human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3)
Antibiotics are administered and the
wound must be drained of fluid, topical treatment may also be administered
Shingles (Human Herpes virus 3, HH3)
Caused By
Superficial Mycoses
The chickenpox virus remains latent in the ganglia of the cutaneous branches of nerves. Shingles may reemerge after reactivation of the virus by such stimuli as psychological stress, X-ray treatment, immunosuppressive and other drug therapy, surgery, or a developing malignancy.
Pain is usually the first symptoms of shingles, a red rash that begins a few days after the pain. Additional symptoms include fluid-filled blisters that break open and crust over, itching, fever and chills, general achiness, headache, fatigue
There is no cure for shingles, however antivirals can help speed up healing and reduce complications (Oral acyclovir). Secondary bacterial infection can be treated with topical or systemic antibiotics. Pain management is also important during treatment.
depigmentation of skin
Intense itching
hanging groins
elephantiasis of genitals
visual impairment
becoming blind
lymph nodes swollen
skin elasticity destruction
thick, rough, wrinkled skin
Rubella (German Measles)
Strep: Streptococcus pyrogenes
Topical agents that enhance the sloughing of skin cells may help to prevent comedo formation or to keep comedos from becoming putulses or papules. Also, topical/oral antibiotics (erythromycin, tetracycline). Females are often prescribed oral contraceptive pills (containing estrogen) to treat their acne.
Initial swelling over the pore is called a comedo. When the lesion erupts on the surface, it is called a pustule or papule.
Closed comedo is commonly called a whitehead.
Open comedo with a dark plug of sebum is called a black head.
Pustules that involve deep lays of the skin are called cysts
Caused By
-Inflammation and discharge are most common clinical presentations
-Pain is generally mild and the patient may report a gritty sensation
-Redness and eyelid swelling
Initial Prevention:
MMR Vaccination
After Infected:
Antibiotics, doses of
immunoglobins, possible
Vitamin A suppliments,
also must reduce fever,
replace lost fluids, and
suppress cough
Causes By:
a virus of the Morbillivirus genes
(single-stranded enveloped RNA)
Signs and Symptoms:
Initial: sore throat, dry cough, headache, conjuctivitis, and fever
Later: lesions form around face and spread down the body
can also form subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Caused by:
Chlamidia trachomatis
It is a major cause of Blindness in
some parts of the world
Signs and Symptoms:
Initial: mild conjunctivitis discharge and slight inflammation
Later development: marked infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages into the infected area (redness, heat, swelling), formation of a rough, pebbled look on the inner aspect of the eyelids.
Chronic Infection can lead to coronal damage and impaired vision
if vision is lost, it is permanent, and cannot be corrected.
Good hygiene
Vector control
Correctional treatment of chronic coronal damage
Caused By:
yeast infection
Malassezia furfur
Dermatophytes (Keratinophilic fungi)
topical antifungals
Signs and Symptoms:
Ordinarily an innocuous, cosmetic disease rather than inflammatory
mild, chronic scaling and interferes with the production of melanin
the trunk, face, limbs take on a molting appearance
Cutaneous Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis, a gram(+))

• Endospores enter the skin through small cuts and/or abrasions
• Zoonotic disease- mainly affects livestock and wild game and is transmitted to humans through direct or indirect contact with sick animals
• Human to human transmission is rare but may be contagious through skin lesions
Caused By

• Formation of a papule that may be itchy
• Papule ruptures and forms a painless back eschar (dry scab)
• May cause tissue necrosis
• Swelling in lymph glands near the sore, or swelling of the sore may occur
Day 10:
after first

• Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and/or doxycycline
• Most effective if treatment is started as soon as possible after exposure
• Left untreated, cutaneous anthrax may be fatal up to 20% of the time
Day 1:
after first symptoms appear
Day 4:
after first symptoms
Day 7:
after first
Works Cited
Cutaneous Anthrax
Worldwide distribution of B. anthracis clonal lineages:Phylogenetic and geographic relationships among 1,033 B. anthracis isolates.
"Anthrax." Center for Food Security and Public Health (2003): 1-6. New Jersey Department of Argriculture. Center for Food Security and Public Health, 2003. Web. 26 July 2012.
Cowan, Marjorie K. Microbiology: A Systems Approach. Third Edition. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 201
DiSalvo, Dr Arthur. "Superficial (cutaneous) Mycoses." Superficial (cutaneous) Mycoses. The Board of Trustees at the University of South Carolina, 28 Oct. 2010. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/mycology/mycology-4.htm>.
"Gangrene." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 10 Aug. 2011. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/gangrene>.
"Impetigo." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 05 Oct. 2010. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/impetigo/DS00464/>.
"Measles (Rubella)." CDC.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 21 May 2012. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/measles/index.html>.
Matthew N. Van Ert, W. Ryan Easterday, Lynn Y. Huynh, Richard T. Okinaka, Martin E. Hugh-Jones, Jacques Ravel, Shaylan R. Zanecki, Talima Pearson, Tatum S. Simonson, Jana M. U'Ren, Sergey M. Kachur, Rebecca R. Leadem-Dougherty, Shane D. Rhoton, Guenevier Zinser, Jason Farlow, Pamala R. Coker, Kimothy L. Smith, Bingxiang Wang, Leo J. Kenefic, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, David M. Wagner, Paul Keim. "Global Genetic Population Structure of Bacillus Anthracis." PLoS ONE. National Institutes of Health, General Medical Sciences and the U.S. Departments of Energy and Homeland Security, 23 May 2007. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000461>.
Pulugurtha, Shamala. "Antibiotics for Streptococcus Pyogenes." LIVESTRONG.COM. Lance Armstrong Foundation, 9 July 2010. Web. 22 July 2012. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/170007-antibiotics-for-streptococcus-pyogenes/>
"Recognize Symptoms of NF." Necrotizing Fasciitis. National Necrotizing Fasciitis Foundation, 2003. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.nnff.org/nnff_symptoms.htm>.
Vaccine administered up to 4 days after exposure to the virus, and before the rash appears, provides protective immunity and can prevent infection or lessen the severity of the disease. No effective treatment, other than the management of symptoms, is currently available. Cidofovir, a chemotherapeutic agent, has produced promising results in laboratory studies.
Fever, malaise, exhaustion, severe back pain and sometimes abdominal pain
Rash begins in the pharynx, spreads to the face, and progresses to the extremities and trunk (macules to papules to vesicles to pustules)
Lesions develop inside the mouth and throat
Pustules form scabs that form depressed, depigmented scars
Variola major: haemorrhage into the mucous membranes and the skin
Variola is an orthopoxvirus, with an enveloped DNA. The virus is shaped like a brick and is 200 nm in diameter. Variola is a hardy virus, surviving outside the host much longer than most viruses.
Cause By
Small Pox (Variola minor and variola major)
Caused By
Acne is multifactorial, requiring conditions to be just right before the presence of this otherwise benign bacterium results in acne.
N. gonorrhoeae C. trachomatis (neonatal eye infection); S. epidermidis, S. pyogenes, S. pneumonia, Haemophilus, Moraxella
Newborn children in the US are administered antimicrobial eye drops, and if infection is suspected given both topical and oral antibiotics. Antibacterial therapy aims to cover all possible pathogens. Ciprofloxacin is commonly prescribed, as well as Erythromycin of Gentamicin. Diagnosis is typically based on clinical signs so antibiotics are prescribed for all cases. If after 48 hours symptoms are not alleviated, further diagnosis is needed (possible viral infection).
Acne (Propinonibacterium acnes)
Works Cited Cont.
caused by: Herpes simplex virus/miscellaneous microorganisms
(early symptoms): gritty feeling in the eye, conjunctivitis, sharp pain, sensitivity to light, opaque corneal lesions (sometimes)
(later symptoms):
complete corneal destruction that leads to blindness
viral condition treatment:
trifluridine or acyclovir (sometimes both)
trauma and bacterial infection: treated with specific antibiotics
caused by: Rubella virus/ Rubivirus in family Togavirus
inflitrates local lymphoid tissue, malaise, mild fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, rash of purple and pink papules
Adult: joint inflammation, pain, arthritis, and encephalitis
first trimester/ miscarriage or permanent defects, anemia, hepatitis, pneumonia, carditis, and bone infection
Postnatal is generally benign/symptomatic treatment
Congenital: no specific treatment available
Caused by: gram positive bacterium/contact with wounds or mucus of infected people
mild versions: pharyngitis (strep throat) and skin infection known as impetigo
(If strep throat is left untreated it can lead to Scarlet Fever)
more severe: Erysipelas and Cellulitis are in the deeper layers of the skin
It can lead to Necrotizing fasciitis and Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (swelling, pain, redness, fever, dizziness, difficultly breathing, low blood pressure, weak rapid pulse/high percentages of death
Treatment: Beta-Lactam antibiotics such as penicillin, various macrolides, cephalosporins/surgical action may need to be taken if it spreads...
1500 B.C. -- Fifth Egyptian plague, affecting livestock, and the sixth, known as the plague of boils, symptomatic of anthrax

1600s -- "Black Bane," thought to be anthrax, kills 60,000 cattle in Europe

1876 -- Robert Koch confirms bacterial origin of anthrax

1880 -- First successful immunization of livestock against anthrax .

1915 -- German agents in the United States believed to have injected horses, mules, and cattle with anthrax on their way to Europe during World War I
1937 -- Japan starts biological warfare program in Manchuria, including tests involving anthrax

1942 -- United Kingdom experiments with anthrax at Gruinard Island off the coast of Scotland. It was only recently decontaminated.

1943 -- United States begins developing anthrax weapons

1945 -- Anthrax outbreak in Iran kills 1 million sheep

1950s and '60s -- U.S. biological warfare program continues after World War II at Fort Detrick, Maryland

1969 -- President Richard Nixon ends United States' biological weapons program

1970 -- Anthrax vaccine approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration

1972 -- International convention outlaws development or stockpiling of biological weapons

1978-80 -- Human anthrax epidemic strikes Zimbabwe, infecting more than 6,000 and killing as many as 100

1979 -- Aerosolized anthrax spores released accidentally at a Soviet Union military facility, killing about 68 people

1991 -- U.S. troops vaccinated for anthrax in preparation for Gulf War

1990-93 -- The terrorist group, Aum Shinrikyo, releases anthrax in Tokyo but no one is injured

1995 -- Iraq admits it produced 8,500 liters of concentrated anthrax as part of biological weapons program

1998 -- U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen approves anthrax vaccination plan for all military service members

2001 -- A letter containing anthrax spores is mailed to NBC one week after the September 11 terrorist attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center. It was the first of a number of incidents around the country. In Florida, a man dies after inhaling anthrax at the offices of American Media Inc.

"Timeline: Anthrax through the Ages." CNN. Turner Broadcasting System, 16 Oct. 2001. Web. 22 July 2012. <http://articles.cnn.com/2001-10-16/health/anthrax.timeline_1_anthrax-outbreak-deadly-anthrax-disease-anthrax-weapons?_s=PM:HEALTH>.
Timeline from:
Scarlett Fever. Linda J. Vorvick, MD; David Zieve, MD, MHA. May 5th, 2012. PubMed Health. June 20, 2012 <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001969/>.
Shingles. Mayo Clinic Staff. September 1, 2011. Mayo Clinic. June 20, 2012 <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/shingles/DS00098/DSECTION=symptoms>.
Small pox. 2001. World Health Organization. June 20, 2012 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/smallpox/en/
"Staph Infections." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 09 June 2011. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/staph-infections>.
"Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome." Boston Children's Hospital. Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, May 2012. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site1636/mainpageS1636P1.html>.
"The Filarial Genome Network." Biology and Pathology of Onchocerca Volvulus. Filarial Gene Network, 26 July 2000. Web. 21 July 2012. <http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/SWILLIAM/fgn/pnb/oncvol.html>.
"Timeline: Anthrax through the Ages." CNN. Turner Broadcasting System, 16 Oct. 2001. Web. 22 July 2012. <http://articles.cnn.com/2001-10-16/health/anthrax.timeline_1_anthrax-outbreak-deadly-anthrax-disease-anthrax-weapons?_s=PM:HEALTH>.
"Trachoma." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 17 July
2010. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/trachoma>.
Tinea corporis - small lesions occurring anywhere on the body
Tinea pedis - "athlete's foot". Infection of toe webs and soles of feet.
Tinea unguium (onychomycosis) - nails. Clipped and used for culture
Tinea capitis - head. Frequently found in children
Tinea cruris - "jock itch". Infection of the groin, perineum or perianal area.
Tinea barbae - ringworm of the bearded areas of
the face and neck
Anthrax is a globally widespread disease of livestock and wildlife that can infects humans.
Geographical Frequency
of Bacillus Anthrasis
This shows the frequency of infections in both
animal and human subjects around the world.
Matthew N. Van Ert, W. Ryan Easterday, Lynn Y. Huynh, Richard T. Okinaka, Martin E. Hugh-Jones, Jacques Ravel, Shaylan R. Zanecki, Talima Pearson, Tatum S. Simonson, Jana M. U'Ren, Sergey M. Kachur, Rebecca R. Leadem-Dougherty, Shane D. Rhoton, Guenevier Zinser, Jason Farlow, Pamala R. Coker, Kimothy L. Smith, Bingxiang Wang, Leo J. Kenefic, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, David M. Wagner, Paul Keim. "Global Genetic Population Structure of Bacillus Anthracis." PLoS ONE. National Institutes of Health, General Medical Sciences and the U.S. Departments of Energy and Homeland Security, 23 May 2007. Web. 26 July 2012. <http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000461>.
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