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Copy of BECK Depression Inventory for Youth II (BDI-II)

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Andy Edwards

on 9 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of BECK Depression Inventory for Youth II (BDI-II)

BECK Depression Inventory for Youth II (BDI-II)


By Carrie Baeza
Defined
Normed on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders Forth Edition (DSM—IV), this inventory aids in the early identification of symptoms of depression. Items on this scale are related to a child's or adolescent's negative thoughts about self, life and the future, feelings of sadness and guilt, and physiological indicators, e.g., sleep disturbance.
Background
-Moods disorders occur in approximately 2% of youth.
-Rates of psychopathology increase with age with around 8% of preschoolers, 12% of pre-adolescents and 15% of adolescents experiencing disturbances in psychological health.


Benefits of BDI-II
-Self-report
-Research shows that self-reports are an effective means of obtaining information about the psychological status of a child.
-Self-reports are especially important for assessing internalizing symptoms and cognitions, such as those included in depression.
-Self-report information from children is unique and not interchangeable with parental reports.
-It engages the child in the assessment process and reduces the demand on them for verbal expression.

Continued...
-Self-reports also provide rapid assessment of symptom severity. Facilitation of large scale screening, ease of administration by nonprofessionals, and well documented psychometric properties.
-Generally, self-reports of internalizing symptoms by older children and adolescents are more valid than their parents.
-The BDI-II has demonstrated a high degree of reliability and validity in young populations.


Administration
-Examiner qualifications
-May be administered by a variety of individuals under supervision.
-Person responsible for the administration and interpretation should be should be trained in clinical assessment procedures and knowledgeable about the appropriate uses and limitations of psychological tests related to reliability and validity.

Relevant Age
-Intended use is for children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 18 years of age.
-Items are relatively comprehensive since they are written at a 2nd grade reading level.
-Significant variability of reading level is present among 7 year olds and second graders. When administering to children of this age group, it’s necessary to make sure they are able to read and comprehend all items and ask for clarification when needed. If necessary, inventory may be read to child.

Test Setting
-Testing environment should be quiet, comfortable, and free from distraction. Group testing should involve small groups, and children should have enough room to be assured of privacy as they complete the inventory. Generally, youth should not be tested with friends, siblings or parents in the room unless developmentally or clinically indicated.

Administration time/items
-The BDI-II is a brief (5-10 minute) and easy to administer self-report questionnaire. Time can and should be adjusted based upon special needs of youth being tested.
-The inventory contains 20 questions about thoughts, feelings, or behaviors related to social or emotional impairment.
-For each statement, children describe how true an item is for them. (Photo copy the BDI-Y only for each student) Read off examples and possible options.

Testing Instructions
-Circumstances of testing direct how you introduce the inventories, e.g., if there is concern from parents or teachers you may explain that these questions help concerned others understand how the youth thinks or feels.

-Next ask the youth to read the instructions at the top of the inventory very carefully.

-If more appropriate (younger child) you may read the instructions allowed explaining that there are no right or wrong answers.


Continued...
-It’s important to emphasize that these symptoms should be especially present in the past two weeks.

-Direct the child or adolescent to answer all questions truthfully and to select only one answer per question.

-Youth may ask for clarification on words or concepts they do not understand and they are allowed to change answers but need to be sure they have completely erased first answer.

Statistical properties
-Norming
-To determine appropriate norm groups, age and sex effects on scores were assessed for the normative sample. Analysis of variance supported the use of sex-by-age norms for the broad ages groups of 7-10 and 11-14. A two-way analysis of variance for responses to the depression inventory found a major effect for sex, with females reporting higher scores and a major effect for age, with both sexes showing a tendency to report less depression with increasing age; and a significant interaction effect, with male self-reported depression decreasing more markedly with increasing age than female self reported depression.

Standard Error of Measurement for Depression by Age and Sex
Age Band Depression
7-10 Female 2.86
Male 3.01
Average 2.93

11-14 Female 2.35
Male 2.37
Average 2.36

Female 2.24
15-18 Male 2.24
Average 2.24


Reliability
-To determine internal consistency, researchers used Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and the test-retest consistency of scores over approximately a week.

-Cronbach’s alpha coefficients computed for each of the five inventories within each of the six norm groups indicated high internal consistency ranging from .86 to .91 for ages 7-10 and from .86 to .92 for ages 11-14. Alphas ranged from .91 to .96 for adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18. Slide 9:


Validity
-Validity for the depression inventory was found through comparing a clinical group to a demographically matched control group. The greatest discrepancy in scores within the BECKS inventory was found in the BDI-Y, which provides evidence of validity for the inventory.


Recommendations
• If a student rates highly on the depression scale, I would refer them out for counseling services as well as provide them myself. I would use either cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy depending on their needs. If they are having trouble making friends I might use social skills training to assist them or help them build their confidence if that is the primary problem. If a student lacks motivation based on their depression I would work with them to figure out the best time of day for them to complete homework assignments or projects.
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