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Technology for the future!
Transcript of Technology for the future!
In 1989 Robert Cailliau (Gillies & Cailliau, 2001) and Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in Switzerland put forward a proposal for the management of documents using computers. Management at CERN received the proposal as 'vague but exciting' (Gillies, 2001, p. 181). Cailliau and Berners-Lee envisaged a service that could share files, documents, information, dialogue, graphics, sound files and more.
The initial stages of the WWW from 1990 to 2001 provided the capacity for an information service. Schools, training colleges and universities developed websites as part of the proliferation of information accessible globally. The websites were institutionally focussed and somewhat akin to reading manuals.
Professor Jim Bosco (2006) from Western Michigan University, suggests that we are in a period where verbal and written communication operate electronically, globally and more personally than ever before and that has profound implications for education, business and research.
Since the 1990’s, ICT use has increased significantly due to the development of the world-wide web WWW. Spring (2004) and Lonsdale (2003) developed theories through the investigation of the impact and understanding of ICT in communities.
Spring described five teaching and learning mordels which could provide effective, quality and cost benefits within education. These include:
1. Classroom interactive learning
2. Independent learning
3. Networked learning
4. Organizational learning
5. Managed learning.
(Spring, G. 2004. p. 37).
Lonsdale (2003) examined the types of uses for which ICT was deployed in education broadly classifying them into four sub-groups: content, products, communication and site support.
The roles that ICT play in the education are inseparable from the types of uses that users employ ICT to perform. More recently the computer has been described as a ‘window not a destination’ by technology strategist Marc Pesche (2008) in a keynote address at the Digital Education Revolution Workshop in Sydney.
The role of ICT will continue to evolve but what about the capacity
of people and institutions to adapt.
Theories studied throughout the unit
Students are a generation that have grown up within the digital world, providing them with continual exposure to various forms of ICT. The knowledge generate of the curriculum currently in place is aided by the Queensland State Governments 'Smart Classrooms', which provides teachers with adequate knowledge to advance their own as well as students knowledge in a digital classroom.
This Smart Classrooms strategy focuses on what ICT can do for schools (Department of Education, Training and Employment, 2012).
These Priorities reflect the core ideas about the implementation
of ICT within the classroom and what advantages it will
have for all education stakeholders--->
The Learning Place developed by the Queensland Government also provides students and teachers a place that has a complete range of curriculum resources that reignite the excitement in learning.
The need for ICT!
The Australian Curriculum identifies the need for ICT integration into student learning, so assist students ability to 'effectively and appropriate access, create and communicate information and ideas, solve problems and work collaboratively in all learning areas at school, and in their lives beyond school' (ACARA, 2013).
The Melbourne Declaration on the Educational Goals for Young Australians (MCEETYA, 2008) recognises that in this digital age, and with continual rapid changes in the ways that people share, use and communicate with ICT, young people need to be highly skilled in its use. To participate in a knowledge-based economy and to be empowered within a technologically sophisticated society now and into the future, students need the knowledge, skills and confidence to make ICT work for them at school, at home, at work and in their communities.
Information and communication technologies are fast and automated, interactive and multimodal, and they support the rapid communication and representation of knowledge to many audiences and its adaptation in different contexts. They transform the ways that students think and learn and give them greater control over how, where and when they learn.
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2013). Information and Communication Technology. Retrieved from (http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Information-and-Communication-Technology-capability/Introduction/Introduction.
Many personal beliefs about the impact of ICT on practices exist however are reflected upon to ensure that the knowledge obtained is accurate and empowering. It is important for teachers to integrate ICT into the curriculum to bridge the gap between digitally sound students and those who have not had the experience to use ICT before.
ICT is the foundation of modern day teaching!
ICT will be integrated into teaching methods to educate not only the students, but the teachers as well.
Various forms of ICT will include;
- Internet and computer use
- Microsoft Word
- Scholar websites
- Photography and video-graphy
- Television/ movie viewing
Integrating ICT into teaching will support teacher reflection, teacher progression and connectedness within the classroom.
ICT will be used on a regular basis, whether it may include reflecting on lessons via OneSchool, or using the online C2C to assist in developing motivating and engaging learning experiences for students. ICT will be integrated by using SmartBoards, Computers, Projectors and Cameras.
These foundations will be presented in my work later in the semester, by refering to ICT resources to help develop lessons, by using computers, SmartBoards and overhead projectors to present content and to reflect on the lesson computers or cameras can be used. Nanango State High School
Number enrolled in 2012: 499
Number of teachers in 2012: 52
Percentage of year 12 students awarded a Queensland Certificate of Education (QCE): 74.7%
Nanango SHS currently follows the framework of the Australian Curriculum as well as the Queensland Curriculum.
Nanango SHS states that "all classes will engage in the study of language, grammar, sentence construction, punctuation and text types and all units include the study of literature and media and the use of information and communication technology" (2013). NAPLAN EXAMPLE TEST:
http://www.nap.edu.au/verve/_resources/Example_Test_Reading_Y9.pdf http://blog.lib.umn.edu/cspg/electionacademy/images/social.media.cube.jpg 1. Improving contact between all stakeholders, as well as supporting staff through portal web systems. This allows staff to generate learning materials for students for outside of the classroom. 2. Providing teachers with the necessary tools to complete ICT requires. Allowing teachers access to their own computer to generate learning materials and allowing teachers to reflect on practices through web portal systems. 3. Through teacher-development, teachers are guided to use the most appropriate forms of ICT. 4. providing advanced ICT support to allow teachers to teach, and ICT technicians to support them. 5. The implementation of OneSchool in 2007, which supports teachers learning. 6. Having a clear direction on ICT will be implemented in student learning.
Many implications exist in regards to the implementation of ICT into the curriculum and pedagogy to ensure that students as well as teachers have continual access to the digital world to ensure that learning is advancing every day.
The continual advancement in knowledge generation and knowledge economy for ICT can be costly as 'successful implementation of e-learning such as financial expenditure to ensure adequate infrastructure of technology and professional development for teachers is considered' (Broadley, 2007). A continual running cost will exist as well as technology maintenance, which will effect the teachers decision as to whether they incorporate ICT into learning practices. This means preparation for teachers can be time consuming to ensure that they have access to the learning literature for students in ICT form and paper form. The maintenance for ICT however is considered a whole-school approach, which ensures that teachers are supported by ICT professionals to aid in their ICT delivery and financial costs.
The financial costs are currently supported by the Queensland Governments 'Supplementary Grant', which is annually received to support ICT integration and running expenses throughout the year. 'Each school's expenditure on ICT will be shaped by its local context, planned for, within budget allocations and reflected in its Annual Implementation Plan' (Department of Education, Training and Employment, 2012). What Students are expected to learn!
The aim is to help students develop their knowledge, understanding,
Ways Of Working, and skills needed to be able to work in today's digital
world of technology.
The Student ICT Expectations will assist schools with the implementation of the Australian Curriculum, General Capability, ICT Capability which recognises that successful learners are creative and productive users of technology, especially ICT, as a foundation for success in all learning areas.
The Student ICT Expectations identify the ICT knowledge, understanding, ways of working and skills that students in Queensland state schools are required to have the opportunity to develop from Prep to Year 12. These expectations are based on the National Statements of Learning for Information and Communication Technology and support the Australian Curriculum General Capability of ICT Capability.
The Expectations include the same elements of ICT Competence as articulated in the Australian Curriculum:
Inquiring with ICT
Creating with ICT
Communicating with ICT
Ethics, Issues and ICT
The Student ICT Expectations are embedded within the Curriculum into the Classroom units and provide specific examples of how ICT can be used to develop and consolidate curriculum understandings across learning areas. A majority of students are continually advancing with technology knowing how to use and investigate how to use the latest forms of technology. This however is not the case for teachers. At times students are more aware with how to use ICT that teachers can at times feel intimidated by their knowledge.
To generate an engaging ICT experience for students that will not only advance themselves but will advance the teachers also, teachers need to be constantly researching different forms of ICT integration into their pedagogy and curriculum.
The Queensland SMARTClassrooms allows students, teachers and also parents access to the latest forms of ICT integration (Department of Education, Training and Employment, 2012). New name and more opportunities with the Digital Practice Guide
The Digital Practice Guide, formerly known as the Education Support Workers Framework, has been renamed to reflect the opportunities available to all education support staff as they explore their digital practice to build workforce capability and performance.
2013 has kick-started with a two day workshop held on the student free days for education support staff that support students with disability. This event was part of the training opportunities provided by the More Support for Students with Disabilities National Partnership project.
Education support staff participated in sessions to develop the skills needed to engage with digital content and resources in the classroom, using tools such as iPads, apps, webcams, interactive whiteboards, web conferencing and a variety of assistive technologies.
During the workshop participants were able to use the Digital Practice Guide to reflect on their daily work experiences. By doing so, they gathered evidence to contribute towards their Developing Performance Plans and qualifications that may enable them to progress into a higher classification level.
There are regular live and recorded web conferences specifically for teacher aides on OneChannel that provide ongoing professional learning. For more information about the Digital Practice Guide see the Smart Classrooms website.
(Department of Education, Training and Employment, 2012). The Digital Gap in Society
There are evidential gaps in society for students in rural areas, opposed to those is multicultural cities. The problem that arises is that students in rural areas have, at times, limited access to ICT sources which can hinder their development in the fast paced advancing digital world.
A case report from overseas has also identified its concerns of this gap in society by highlighting that schools are inextricably bound up with issues of equity:
Research has shown that inequities emerge in
both access and in ways computers are being
used to educate children. Inequalities were
identified among students from poor families,
low achievers, students learning to speak English
and those who live in rural areas. A major
challenge therefore is for school leaders to
ensure that schools are places where inequities
are lessened and eradicated by any means (Ahmad). 1. Difficulties integrating ICT in some curricula activities
The Australian Curriculum currently highlights four areas in which ICT is integrated across the curriculum which includes, Mathematics, English, History and Science.
Information and communication technology is represented in two ways in the Australian Curriculum: through the ICT capability that applies across all learning areas and within the Technologies curriculum through Digital technologies (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2013).
ICT is expected in association to the current Queensland and Australian Educational Standards to be integrated into all learning areas. ICT can be integrated in many diverse forms which identifies the myth that ICT cannot be integrated into some curricula activities. 2. Preparation time takes too long
With the assistance from SMARTClassrooms, One School and the C2C, ICT integration is as easy as a click of the button. The benefit of preparing ICT lessons, is that the lesson content is easily accessible through the means of Smartboards, Projectors, Movies, Computers and also through the internet. 4. ICT allows for easy reflection for lessons C2C, OneSchool
3. Students knowing more than teachers
In January 2011, it was reported in the TES Newspaper that it is statistically proven that the generation Y are digitally advanced and know their way around social networking sites than many of their teachers.
“The key is to support this understanding with IT throughout teaching and learning. We have subject gateways that allow students to access learning resources, subject by subject” (Vaughan, 2011).
The concern that is present however is the widening gap between students and the workforce, as students may be advanced in social networking, however lack the skills necessary to enter the workforce. This gap is being closed with the continual support from the Education System, providing teachers with support to educate students about various forms of ICT and how these are applicable to life after school. CLASS SETTING Grade: 9
Lesson Focus: NAPLAN Preparation
Number of students: 24
ICT Integration in NAPLAN :
Digital resources and eSpaces can be used to provide multiple learning opportunities for students, cater to individual differences and increase engagement. Through OneSchool, teachers are able to generate a report which contains NAPLAN data for their current cohort of students. This report also provides access to Teaching Considerations developed by the Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) for each NAPLAN item in Numeracy, Reading, Spelling, and Grammar and Punctuation.
Each QSA Teaching Considerations sheet suggests reasons for students selecting each incorrect answer, identifies the targeted curriculum content for that question, and provides teaching ideas for developing the relevant concepts and skills. This NAPLAN data assists teachers in identifying the gaps and misunderstandings of specific students. Teachers can then identify where these concepts are addressed within Curriculum into the classroom (C2C) units and use these materials to differentiate learning (Department of Education, Training and Employment, 2012). Resources
Students are able to have access to a range of resources to assist their learning within the school and also through the use of ICT outside of the school at home. Various resources include:
Laptop hire - Students are able to hire a laptop for individual use within the classroom and to use at home.
Mathematical Programs (SPSS for Calculus)
Microsoft Programs for assessment (Word, PowerPoint, Publisher etc)
National Assessment Program (NAP) provides teachers and students access to a range of sample tests to guide the direction of learning. The following digital link on NAP's website shows the range of sources accessible: http://www.nap.edu.au/naplan/the-tests.html.
Through the use of ICT students as well as teachers are able to reflect on required learning and advance their ICT skills as well as knowledge of the content.
Teachers will be able to incorporation ICT into their lessons to view these sources with the students. Student Overview
Students come from a range of backgrounds, of which 8% are Indigenous.
The school is a National Partnership School which means that the school is situated in a Low Socio-Economic Status School Community.
The Low SES National Partnership is a joint initiative between the Australian Government, Education Queensland and the Catholic and Independent schooling sectors.
The Low Socio-Economic Status School Communities National Partnership will support reforms that improve the wellbeing and learning outcomes of students from disadvantaged backgrounds through initiatives including:
•strategies to attract, develop and support highly qualified principals and teachers to schools in low socio-economic areas
•tailored and more flexible learning opportunities
•greater accountability of schools
•partnerships with parents, other schools, business and communities (Department of Education, Training and Employment, 2012). Pedagogical Framework
Nanango SHS is a Positive Behaviour Support School and works from four key values.
The school strongly advocates the EVERYDAY COUNTS philosophy to encourage students to push for 100% attendance.
The school is also a National Partnership School and this provides extensive Federal Funding to improve student learning outcomes.
Nanango receives continual outstanding results from students across a wide range of programs. There are four key groups in operation at the school. These are the schools ‘Keys to Success’. These groups are:
Student Well Being and Participation,
Closing the Gap.
The three target priorities for 2013 are:
•All students to receive a C in English and Maths and reading at their age appropriate level
•100% of students receive a QCE, are awarded a VET certificate or a School based traineeship or apprenticeship
•100% attendance although our 2013 target is 93%
(Nanango State High School, 2013).
Nanango State High School has a proud tradition of creating and developing programs
to cater for needs of all students.
What impact does ICT have of Learning?
ICT allows students to investigate the real world more thoroughly (Réginald Grégoire inc., Bracewell, & Laferriére, 1996; Riel, 1998). They can more readily access information outside the classroom and can use tools to analyze and interpret information. The technologies allow students to receive feedback, refine their understanding, build new knowledge and transfer from school to non-school settings (Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning, 2000).
Through the promotion of active learning and authentic assessment, student engagement within the curriculum will increase as they are offered opportunities to create their own information and represent their own ideas through the use of ICT (Riel, 1998). Computer software is used to provide students with learning experiences where they are interacting with the computer system. Alternatively the software may support activities where they interact with other people either in person or on-line within a controlled and safe environment (Riel, 1998).
Students also can be provided with computer support for learning activities that are tailored to their individual needs. Studies have shown increased achievement in special needs children when computers are used (Schacter, 1999).
The following link below Identifies the impact that ICT has on student outcomes who individuals with disabilities:
http://education.qld.gov.au/smartclassrooms/showcase/2011-05/how-can-ict-be-used.html How ICT can be used to enhance learning outcomes for students with disabilities The Impact of ICT on Teaching
While computers can be used in a demonstration mode most of the range of computer use involves computers being used by students. A teacher-centered approach should be adopted through use of various demonstration and tutorial presentations. To accommodate the impact of ICT within the classroom, there needs to be a number of changes to the role of the teacher. The teacher becomes the catalyst for learning and a learning model for the students working along side them. The teacher is a facilitator of cooperative learning by involving students in real problem-solving. In the apprenticeship model, the teacher may use ICT to model an activity and then scaffold the learner (Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning, 2000).
It is acknowledged that a problem for teachers using computers is evaluating whether students are engaged and with what. Further, teachers must evaluate student learning needs in order to provide them with appropriate tasks and software. Problems concerning evaluation require teachers to spend more time in one-to-one interaction with students and to have skills in interpreting student output (e.g. written or spoken). References
Ahmad, R. Managing the use of ICT in schools: strategies for school leaders.Aminuddin Baki Cawangan Utara Institute. Retrieved from
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2011). The tests. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu.au/naplan/the-tests.html.
Bosco, J. (2006). Tools, Culture and Communications: past - present - future. Global Summit, Sydney, Australia. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from
Broadley, T. (2007). Implementation of e-learning. A case study of three schools. University of Technology: SiMERR WA.
Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning (Ed.). (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, D.C.:
National Academy Press.
Department of Education, Training and Employment. (2012). Classroom Connections. Retrieved from
Department of Education, Training and Employment. (2012). Digital practice guide. Retrieved from
Department of Education, Training and Employment. (2012). Information and communication technology. Retrieved from
Department of Education, Training and Employment. (2012). National Partnership. Retrieved from
Department of Education, Training and Employment. (2012). School ICT supplementary grant. Retrieved from
Department of Education, Training and Employment. (2012). Student ICT expectations. SMARTClassrooms. Retrieved from
Gillies, J. (2000). How the Web was Born. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Nanango State High School. (2013). Principal's welcome. Retrieved from
Nanango State High School. (2013). Nanango State High School. Retrieved from https://nanangoshs.eq.edu.au/Pages/default.aspx.
Newhouse, Dr. P. (2002). The impact of ICT on learning and teaching. Retrieved from
Réginald Grégoire inc., Bracewell, R., & Laferriére, T. (1996). The contribution of new technologies to learning and teaching in elementary and
secondary schools. A collaboration of Laval University and McGill University. Retrieved from
Riel, M. M. (1998). Just-in-time learning or learning communities. (pp. 18). Abu Dhabi: The Fourth Annual Conference of the Emirates Center for
Stategic Studies and Research.
Pesce, M. (2008). Digital Education Revolution Workshop keynote address (unpublished), delivered at the Stamford Hotel, June, 2, 2008, in
Adelaide. Melbourne: ACER.
Schacter, J. (1999). The impact of education technology on student achievement: what the most current research has to say.
Santa Monica, CA.: Milken Exchange on Education Technology.
Vaughan, R. (2011). Pupils think they know more than ICT teachers. TES Newspaper. Retrieved from
http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6066993. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/student-activities http://www.jumpstart.com/parents/activities/reading-activities