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nikka mula

on 6 December 2013

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-The period of direct American administration of Moroland.

-The Moroland (and its inhabitants) became effectively a part of the Philippines nation and national concept

-An understanding of the policies and problem encountered in this period yields some important insights in relations between Muslim and Christian Filipino today.
The stages of development o American administration in Moroland
May 1899-July 1903 : initial Muslim-American contact in Moroland

1903-1913 : Moro Province, politico-military control over region to prepare Muslim for civil gov't.

1914-1920 : process of bringing Mindanao and Sulu into the general governmental framework of the Philippines
The Military Occupation 1899-1903
The Moro Province, 1903-1913
- Pres. William McKinley
"The Philippines are not ours to exploit, but to develop, to civilize, to educate, to train the science of self-government. This is the path we must follow or be recreant to a mighty trust committed to us."
Military occupation of Moroland was occasioned by American concern to secure Muslim-Filipino acknowledgement of United States sovereignty in Mindanao and Sulu
The Moro Province
The Philippines Bill of 1902 committed the US to the ultimate independence of the Philippines. It was decided to abandon the policy of non-interference t exercise direct rule over the Muslims with a view of preparing them for integration into the body of politics in the Philippines.
The Americans also sought to keep the Muslims neutral in the Philippine-American War (1899-1901) which raged in the northern provinces.
The decision to exercise direct control of Muslim affairs resulted in the removal of the Bates Agreement and assurances of non-interference by Americans.
The Americans organized the Moro province: stretched from Governor of Zamboanga to the datu who served as headman of the remotest tribal ward.
Slavery was made illegal.
The people ere protected from "tyranny" of their tribal leaders.
More schools, hospitals, and dispensaries were built.
Agriculture and commerce were encouraged.
The Bates Agreement (signed August, 1899) was negotiated with Sulu Sultanate.
Similar, though unwritten, agreements were mad with Muslim Chiefs of Mindanao and Basilan.
The Muslim Filipinos saw these arrangements from a different point of view than the Americans.
The Muslim leaders believed that their diplomacy had kept the Americans out of their internal affairs.
The Military Occupation
The Muslim were regarded as living in a State of pupilage on territory owned by the United States
The Army's main task was to keep the Muslims peaceful, suppress piracy, and curtailing the slave trade.
The American mandate in the Philippines was only mildly implemented in Moroland during the period of military occupation.
Modern medical care was made available to the Muslim at Army hospitals and clinics.
Public health and sanitation regulations were introduced.
A few schools were opened and Muslims were invited to attend them.
Bridges, roads, and trails were constructed which benefited the Muslim.
Activities misunderstood by Muslims:
custom regulations, taxes, land surveys, exploring expeditions.

Muslim Filipinos speculated these activities and their suspicion erupted to violence sometimes.
The Americans interpreted Muslim hostility as defiance of US sovereignty.
The two cultures were brought into more abrasive contact.
Americans decided to take direct hand in the control of Moro affairs at the end of the period of military occupation.
Americans and "Christian Filipinos" from northern provinces were encouraged to settle in Moroland as part of the program to "civilize" the Muslims.
Muslim Filipinos were made to pay taxes:
-cedula (head tax)
-road tax
-registration of vessel fee
-export and import
-property taxes
The Moro province adopted the policy of respecting Islam religion and customs of Muslim Filipinos provided they did not conflict with the American law.
Muslim Filipinos
For the Muslims, "to civilize" seemed to mean the imposition of strange laws and infidel custom.
Laws against slavery threatened the politico-economic structure of traditional society.
Establishment of local governments enforced by troops undermined the power of traditional Muslim leaders.
Bypassing Muslim courts and refusing to recognize customary judicial function of the headmen offended Muslim sensitivities.
The collection taxes was disliked because payment was made to a foreign, infidel government.
The Muslim resented the parceling out of lands, which they had occupied for centuries to foreigners and Christian Filipinos.
The Muslim resented the licensing of foreign vessel to fish the waters of Moroland.
The Muslim suspected that
the American ambition to educate them meant to inculcate Christian teaching and Christian values through the public system. These teaching would alienate their children from the religion and traditional way of life.
The Americans
They ignored the Muslim Filipinos
Governor Leonard Wood fought Muslims who defied American laws, thousand were killed -banditsm outlaws.
The Department of Mindanao and Sulu, 1913-1920
The Muslims realized that continued resistance in the face of the weaponry of Americans meant annihilation.

The Moro people were lead to civilian control
The appointment in December 1913, of Frank W. Carpenter as the first civilian governor of the Moro province, and the subsequent reorganization of the province into the department of Mindanao and Sulu, remarked a new development in American policy towards the Muslim.
The Americans convinced that a strong American military presence would be essential for the maintenance of peace and order for a long time.
President Woodrow Wilson and Governor-General Francis B. Harrison in accord with the desire of the Democratic party to accelerate the move towards self government and independence for the Philippines virtually put control of the Insular Government into the hands of the Filipinos.
In May of 1920, the department Governor in Zamboanga was formally abolished and it's power of supervision and administration were transferred to the Insular Department of the Interior of Manila.
Thereafter, Moro affairs were controlled by the Insular Government directly through the Bureau of Non Christian Tribes in the Department of the Interior.
Public schools were multiplied by hunderds.
Muslim pensionados were sent to Manila and America for higher Education.
Hospital and field dispensaries were provided in such number that medical care within the reach of nearly all inhabitants.
Hundreds of kilometers of new roads and trails built.
Muslims were given participation in local and provincial government.
Agricultural activities of Muslims were given encouragement.
Muslim and Christian families participated in "agricultural colonies".
With the abolition of the Department of the Mindanao and Sulu and the transfer of Governor Carpenter to other service in the Insular Government the effective period of American administration in Moroland came to an end.
Concluding Reflections
Up to the present, we have gone no further than to suppress crime, prevent injustice, establish peaceful conditions and maintain supervisory control.

-Governor Pershing
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