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Champagne & Sparkling Wine
Transcript of Champagne & Sparkling Wine
Pinot Meunier (35%)
Chardonnay (27%) Champagne & Sparkling Wine Justin Griffis
Dr. Sandy Strick
April 4, 2011 History of Sparkling Wine Romans planted vineyards in the NE of France by the 5th century or earlier. French kings were annointed in Reims and champagne was served as part of the coronation festivities. Cold winter temperatures prematurely halted fermentation in the cellars, leaving dormant yeast cells that would awaken in the warmth of spring and start fermenting again Byproducts of fermentation is the release of carbon dioxide gas. The pressure inside the weak, early French wine bottles often caused the bottles to explode. If the bottle survived, the wine was found to contain bubbles, something that the early Champenois were horrified to see. They consideed it a fault with the wine. As late as the 17th century, Champenois wine makers like the Benedictine monk Dom Pérignon (1638–1715) were still trying to rid their wines of the bubbles. By the 19th century these obstacles were overcome and the modern Champagne wine industry took form.
The House of Veuve Clicquot advanced the development of the méthode champenoise made production of sparkling wine a profitable venture.
During this period the founding of many of today's famous Champagne houses, including Krug (1843), Pommery (1858) and Bollinger (1829) occurred. The fortunes of the Champenois and the popularity of Champagne grew until few series of setbacks in the early 20th century. Phylloxera appeared, vineyard growers rioted in 1910-11, the Russian and American markets were lost because of the Russian Revolution and Prohibition, and two World Wars made the vineyards of Champagne a battlefield. Champagne and the Law There has been a resurgence of the popularity of Champagne, the wine most associated with both luxury and celebration
Sales have quadrupled since 1950. Today the region's 86,500 acres (35,000 hectares) produces over 200 millions bottles of Champagne. Le Comité Interprofessionnel du vin de Champagne(1941) - organisation grouping the actors of the Champagne production and trade - growers, cooperatives and merchants - under the direction of the government For a sparkling wine to be labeled "Champagne," it must be from the Champagne Region in France. Canada, Australia, and Chile signed agreements with Europe that will limit the use of the term "champagne" to only those products produced in the Champagne region The US the acknowledges the exclusivity of the "champagne" term and bans the use from all new US produced wines.
Only those that had approval to use the term on labels before 2006 may continue to use it and only when it is accompanied by the wine's actual origin (e.g. California). As of 2005, the description most often legally used for sparkling wines not from Champagne yet using the second fermentation in the bottle process is méthode traditionnelle. Funny story... The village of Champagne, Switzerland has traditionally made a "still" wine labeled as "champagne", the earliest records of viticulture dated to 1657. In an accord with the EU, the Swiss government conceded in 1999 that by 2004 the village would phase out use of the name. Sales dropped from 110,000 bottles a year to 32,000 after the change. In April 2008 the villagers resolved to fight against the restriction following a Swiss open-air vote. Sparkling Wines from Around the World. Spain = Cava
Germany = Sekt
Italy = Spumante OR Muscat = Asti OR Prosecco
South Africa = Cap Classique
France (non-Champagne) = Crémant
Portugal - Espumante
Hungary - Pezsgo So, what grapes are primarily responsible for this party in a bottle? Dom Perignon did not invent Champagne, but he did develop many advances in production of the drink, including holding the cork in place with a wire collar (muselet) to withstand the fermentation pressure. Méthode Champenoise Harvest - late September or early October. Pressing the Grapes - only 2 pressing are allowed. Fermentation - first fermentation when grape juice is converted into wine. Blending - most important step in the creation of Champagne. -Sugar + Yeast = CO2 + Alcohol
-First fermentations take 2 to 3 weeks
-Produces a still wine 3 Important Steps:
Which grapes to blend? PN, Chardonnay, PM
Which vineyards to blend from?
Which vintages (one vs. multiple) Liqueur de Tirage - (blend of sugar and yeast) This will begin second fermentation. Wine is in permanent bottles with bottle cap. Second Fermentation - CO2 stays within the bottle (bubbles form here) Also leaves sediment in the bottle = problems. Aging - amount of time aging = quality of wine. Riddling - wine placed on A-fram racks, neck down. The riddler turns the bottles gradually tipping the bottle downward. After 6 to 8 weeks, the bottles are almost upside down. The sediments are resting the in the neck of the bottle waiting to be removed. Dégorgement - the top of the bottle is dipped into a brine solution and frozen. The temporary cap is removed and out comes the frozen sediment. Dosage - combination of wine and cane sugar is added to the bottle. This determines if the champagne will be sweeter or drier. Recorking - final (real) cork is used. Champagne... the region.
Bottle Sizes Huitième 1/8 bottle 9.4 cl 1 small glass
Quart - This is also called a split by some. 1/4 bottle 18.75 cl 2 small glasses
Demi-bouteille 1/2 bottle 37.5 cl 3 glasses
Bouteille 1 bottle 75 cl 6 glasses
Magnum - You can will imagine that this means big. 2 bottles 150 cl 12 glasses
Jeroboam - King of Israel in 9th century BC. 4 bottles 3 liters 24 glasses
Rehoboam - Son of Solomon and king of Israel in 10th century BC. 6 bottles 4.5 liters 36 glasses
Methuselah - Named after the bilbical patriarch who lived 969 ans (without any champagne!) 8 bottles 6 liters 48 glasses
Salmanazar - Named after an Assyrian king that lived in the 9th century BC. 12 bottles 9 liters 72 glasses
Balthazar - Named after a regent of Babylon, living in the 6th century BC. 16 bottles 12 liters 96 glasses
Nebuchadnezzar - The king of Babylon who lived in the 6th century BC. 20 bottles 15 liters 120 glasses Dosage = Sweetness Extra Brut: very dry
Extra dry: semidry
Doux: sweetest Corks Prior to insertion, a sparkling wine cork is almost 50% larger than the opening of the bottle. Originally they start as a cylinder and are compressed prior to insertion into the bottle. Over time their compressed shape becomes more permanent and the distinctive "mushroom" shape becomes more apparent. Etiquette Champagne is usually served in a Champagne flute or tulip shaped glass, whose characteristics include a long stem with a tall, narrow bowl, thin sides and an etched bottom. Champagne is always served cold, its ideal drinking temperature at 7 to 9 °C (45 to 48 °F). Often the bottle is chilled in a bucket of ice and water before opening. Champagne buckets are made specifically for this purpose, and often have a larger volume than standard wine-cooling buckets (to accommodate the larger bottle, and more water and ice). Opening Health Benefits On 18 April 2007, the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry published the results of a recent joint study by the University of Reading and University of Cagliari that showed moderate consumptions of Champagne may help the brain cope with the trauma of stroke, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's disease.
The research noted that the high amount of the antioxidant polyphenols in sparkling wine can help prevent deterioration of brain cells due to oxidative stress. During the study scientist exposed two groups of mice with blanc de blancs (100% Chardonnay composition) and blanc de noir (Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier based) and a control group with no exposure to Champagne.
The study found that the groups pretreated with exposure to Champagne had a higher level of cell restoration compared to the group that wasn't. Champagne vs. Sparkling Wine So, what's the difference between Champagne and Sparkling wine? Interesting Fact Each bottle contatins up to 49 million bubbles! Better sparkling wines have smaller bubbles and more of them. They creat a texture and "mouth" feel. Typically, it's where and how it's made. The pressure inside a champagne bottle it roughly three times the pressure in a car's tire.
Heavy bottles are required to hold in the intense pressure which results in higher cost than regular wines. Tasting Common Aromas in Champagne
Hazelnuts/walnuts Freixenet - Spanish Cava Foss Marai - Italian Prosecco
Veneto Region Moët & Chandon - France
Champagne Chandon -California Champagne Gruet - New Mexico Charmat Method The Charmat method takes place in stainless steel fermentation tanks that are pressurized. The fresh yeast and sugar mixture is added to the wine which rapidly stimulates fermentation in the pressurized environment. The wine is then cooled, clarified and bottled using a counter pressure filler. The process of carbon injection (or carbonation), the method used to make soda pop fizzy, does not involve initiating a secondary fermentation but rather injecting carbon dioxide gas directly into the wine. This method produces large bubbles that quickly dissipate and is generally only used in the cheapest sparkling wines. Sparkling Wine Influence in Pop Culture Several marketing strategies to increase awareness of the easy drinkability. Fosters image of luxury and elegance. "Pop Champagne" & "Champagne Life" Through advertising and packaging they sought to associate Champagne with high luxury, festivities, and rites of passage. Their efforts coincided with the emergence of a middle class that was looking for ways to spend its money on symbols of upward mobility. New Year's Eve, 1999 - 327 million bottles of champagne were sold! Sparkling Wine as apéritif Sparkling wine sales have risen 8 percent, to a total of $780 million for the year endinh in mid-October 2010, according to Nielsen market research. Sales of champagne from France have risen 12 percent to $191 million. In conclusion... "I drink it when I'm happy and when I'm sad. Sometimes I drink it when I'm alone. When I have company I consider it obligatory. I trifle with it if I'm not hungry and drink it when I am. Otherwise I never touch it - unless i'm thirsty." - Madame Lilly Bollinger