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APA workshop basic

basic in-text and reference

Young-Joo Lee

on 13 November 2010

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Transcript of APA workshop basic

APA Style Made Easy! Let's first ask... Why cite?

Why give sources? Yes, that's right! We need to give credit to authors who deserve it. You got it!
To help your readers.

You want to help your readers find the sources if they want to learn more about the topic. So, remember - if confused with rules, ask... Now, let's start with basics. Let's start with basic.

Author - Date

in-text citation You can do:

According to Purcell (1998),...

Or you can do:

Purcell (1998) found that... Basic forms are:

Author (Date)


(Author, Date)

Let's see examples! How about direct quotation? Like this!

The author speculated that "negative examplars within the self-concept are more confidently known than affirmative examplars" (Brinthaup, 1983, p. 52). Another example?

Walker and Beckerle (1987) suggested that "although state and trait anxiety appear to have a similar effect on tumor transmission, it cannot be concluded that this effect was produced by similar procial procsses" (p. 358).
What about a looong quote? If quoting 40 or more words:
omit quotation marks;
start a new line for quotation;
indent 5 spaces from the left margin;
maintain double-spacing throughout;
put a punctuation mark at the end Too many rules?
No worries!
See the example! As Knutson (2002) observed:
The low Thai willingness to communicate
scores can be interpreted as a function
of the source-receiver interdependence
inspired by their high-context culture.
Interdependence promotes a cautious
concern for the receiver in interpersonal
communication episodes, a concern that
manifests itself in an unwillingness to
communicate. (p. 9)
But, what if there is no page? Yes, website doesn't have a page. What should we do? Remember the guiding principle?
We want to help our readers.
So, we can give paragraph information by using "para. paragraph's #". Like this:

Basu and Jones (2007, para. 4) suggest... If the document includes headings, consider the following way:

Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) confirmed the view (Discussion section, para. 4). How about if there are two authors? That's easy! Do the following:

Dykens and Gerrard (1986) concluded that ... But, inside parenthetical marks, replace "and" with &. Like this!

Recent studies (Sternbert & Miller, 2010) suggested that ... Okay, folks, that's basic in-text citation stuff! I will send you how to do reference list and exercises soon.
Stay tuned! And, what else? Am I giving enough information for my readers so that they can find the sources? That's your guiding principle.

It's better to give more, than less. no quoation marks no quoation marks Period before parenthesis double spaced;
left justified punctuation at the end
Full transcript