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Effects of Violence in Film and Media on the Aggression of Youth
Transcript of Effects of Violence in Film and Media on the Aggression of Youth
in Film and Media
on the Aggression
of Youth "If I wasn't a film director,
I might have become
a serial killer" (Sharod 2). Thesis:
Since there are over thousands of hours of violent content, images, and scenes that can be shown on television and in film, it is inevitable that younger viewers will witness these images out of context, which in turn will affect aggression and violent behaviors.
Censorship should not be a solution to this problem, however, for the artistic vision and license of an artist should not be compromised, but instead parents should be more cautious of what their children witness, television producers should be more consciences of what they air at what times, and there should be an improved television and film rating system. 1950s: 10% of Americans owned televisions Now 99% of Americans own televisions.
Over 50% of families with television,
children have their own T.V. The average American child will witness
about 28 hours of television and media
a week. 200,000 Acts of Violence
by the age of 18. “Television programs display 812 violent acts per hour; children's programming, particularly cartoons, displays up to 20 violent acts hourly” (Beresin MD 1). http://42ndblackwatch1881.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/friedkin-exorcist.jpg Problem:
-“U.S. violent crime rate per 100,000 inhabitants” (Bushman 478) has increased from the 1950s with less than 200 per year to over 600 per year in the 2000s.
-“Violence involving youth causes death and injuries that have both direct and indirect cost excess of $158 billion each year” (Anderson 165).
-“The television and motion picture industries often claim that violent media have no influence on aggressive behavior...” (Bushman 479) -Physical Inactivity
-Poor Eating Habits
-Violence Children are easily moldable and influenced, ergo these behaviors are not formed by themselves, but out of “complex interactions as the individual, peer, family, school, community, and societal levels” (Anderson 148). “Most cross-sectional studies have examined whether people who view many violent TV shows also tend to behave more aggressively. Such studies generally find significant positive correlations” (Anderson 167). One test questioned several pre-teens to see whether or not they had seen certain R-rated violent films from the top 100 US box-office hits from the years of 1998 to 2002, “32 movies that earned at least $15 million in gross at US box-office revenues during the first 4 months of 2003” (Worth 307) while the survey was “programmed” to randomly select 50 movie titles from the larger pool of 532 movies for each adolescent interview.
1,186 10 year olds (34.98%)
1,303 11 year olds (42.47%)
1,338 12 year olds (50.57%)
1,418 13 year olds (57.86%)
1,277 14 year olds (71.54%)
646 (All the time)
2,239 (Not Often)
1,989 (Never) The defense offered by ﬁfilm-makers that cutting violence from their films is destroying their art, fails to take account of the fact that many young people who watch films on video view the violent scenes devoid of the overall story. Rather than look at the whole ﬁfilm in real time, as one would do in the cinema,violent scenes may be played over repeatedly, freeze-framed, and nonviolent scenes fast-forwarded to the next violent episode. Thus, violent imagery may often be seen out of context and the consequences of such violence not observed. Further research can build on existing knowledge and begin to explore the effects of violent ﬁfilm observed ‘inappropriately’ (Browne 25-26). ...Emerging evidence demonstrates that different neural regions are activated when one views violent scenes than when one views nonviolent scenes (Murray et al., 2006). Children were shown violent and nonviolent scenes from commercially released movies while fMRI data were collected. Violent scenes activated a network of brain regions (e.g., posterior, cingulate cortex, hippocampi) involved in processing emotional stimuli, episodic memory retrieval, detecting threats in the environment, memory encoding, and motor programming. This combination of activation in areas linking memory and emotion to motor activation suggests that viewing media violence could integrate existing aggression-related thoughts and feelings, potentially facilitating aggressive behavior by increasing the strength or accessibility of aggressive behavior scripts in memory (Carnagey180). The typical scenario of using violence for a righteous cause may translate in daily life into a justification for using violence to retaliate against perceived victimizers. Hence, vulnerable youth who have been victimized may be tempted to use violent means to solve problems. Unfortunately, there are few, if any, models of nonviolent conflict resolution in the media. Additionally, children who watch televised violence are desensitized to it. They may come to see violence as a fact of life and, over time, lose their ability to empathize with both the victim and the victimizer (2). Censorship And Art:
Art: "the use of skill and imagination in the creation of aesthetic objects, environments, or experiences...” (Encyclopedia Britannica Online)
Philippians 4:8 The MPAA Rating System
NC-17 The 10 Point System Example:
Sex/Nudity: 4 (A few references)
Language: 5 (10 damns, 3 s-words, other crass language)
Violence: 3 (there's a fist fight played for laughs, lots of slapstick)
Alcohol/Drug Use: 2 (one character is always smoking
Frightening/Disturbing Images: 0
Total: 14. Okay for 12 and up Conclusion Works CitedAnderson, Craig A., et al. "The Influence of Media Violence on Youth." Psychological Science in the Public Interest 4 (2003): 81-110. Anderson, Craig A., et al. "Media and Risky Behaviors."Children and Electronic Media 18 (2008): 147-180 Web. Barker, Martin, et al. Ill Effects: The Media/violence Debate. London: Routledge, 1997. Print.Beresin M.D., Eugene V. "The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions." American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Massachusetts General Hospital and McLean Hospital, 2010. Web. 23 Apr. 2012.Browne, Kevin D., et al. "Film Violence and Young Offenders." Aggression and Violent Behavior 4 (1999): 13-28. Web. 16 Aug. 2012.Bushman, Brad J., et al. "Media Violence and the American Public: Scientific Facts versus Media Misinformation." American Psychologist 56.6-7 (2001): 477-89. Print.Carnagey, Nicholas L., et al. "Media Violence and Social Neuroscience: New Questions and New Opportunities." Current Directions in Psychological Science 16.4 (2007): 178-82. Print.Hj Hassan, Salleh Bin Md, et al. "Effects of Watching Violence Movies on the Attitudes Concerning Aggression among Middle Schoolboys (13- 17 Years Old) at International Schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia." European Journal of Scientific Research 38 (2009). 141. EuroJournals. Web.Holy Bible, New International Version, NIV Copyright 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011Shoard, Catherine. "William Friedkin: 'If I Wasn't a Director, I Might Have Become a Serial Killer'" The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 29 June 2012. Web. 07 Oct. 2012.Tarantino, Quentin. "Quentin Tarantino: Personal Quotes." IMDb. Web. 07 Oct. 2012.Worth, Keilah A, et al. "Exposure of US Adolescents to Extremely Violent Movies."Pediatrics 122 (2008): 306-12. 1 Aug. 2008. Web.