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Muscular System Edexcel GCSE PE

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on 23 February 2016

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Transcript of Muscular System Edexcel GCSE PE

The Muscular System
The term 'muscular system' describes all the muscles in the body and how they work.
Movement happens as a result of muscles contracting and lengthening.
Muscles also define body shape and maintain posture, whether sitting or standing.
Voluntary Muscles
Can be consciously controlled.

Can be trained to be stronger and work for longer periods of time without getting tired.

They are the muscles we work on to improve flexibility and allow greater range of movement at the joints.

These are the muscles used when exercising and playing sport.
Voluntary Muscles
Involuntary Muscles
These muscles contract and lengthen by themselves.

Muscles around internal organs.
Antagonistic Muscles Work in Pairs!
Muscles can only do one thing - PULL.
To make a joint move in 2 directions, you need 2 muscles that can pull in opposite directions.

1) Antagonistic muscles are pairs of muscles that work against each other.

2) One muscle contracts (shortens) while the other one relaxes (lengthens) and vice versa.

3) The muscle that is doing the work (contracting) is the prime mover, or
agonist.

4) The muscle that is relaxing is the
antagonist.

5) Each muscle is attached to two bones.

6) Only one of the bones connected at the joint actually moves.
The muscles that you need to know. How many can you label on your partner - use the sticky notes!:
- deltoid
- trapezius
- latissimus dorsi
- pectorals
- abdominals
- biceps
- tricep
- gluteals
- quadriceps
- hamstrings
- gastrocnemius
Short-Term Effects
of Exercise...
1) Whatever type of exercise you do, your muscles will contract. There are two types of contraction - isometric and isotonic.
Isometric Contraction - tension in the muscle is increased by the length stays the same, so nothing moves. E.G: Ski sit
Isotonic Contraction - the muscle changes length and so something moves. E.G: Lifting a weight
2) Whenever you exercise, your muscles work harder than usual, and so need more energy. That means that your body has to increase the oxygen supply to the muscles to give them the energy they need.
3) If your body can't keep up with the muscles' demand for oxygen, the muscles will release energy without oxygen and produce lactic acid. (
Lactic acid is produced in Aerobic or Anaerobic Training??)
4) If you continue to use your muscles for a long period and they're not getting enough oxygen, they start to feel tired and heavy. This is known as muscle fatigue.
Long-Term Effects
of Exercise...
1) Doing regular exercise and strength training will eventually make your muscles thicker and your muscle girth larger (measurement of the distance around your muscles when flexed).
2) The thickening of muscles is called
hypertrophy
. It happens to all muscles when they are exercised, including your . The opposite to hypertrophy is
atrophy
where there is a loss in muscle mass and strength.
3) The thicker a muscle is, the more strongly it can contract - so regular exercise increases your muscular strength.
Injuries to the muscular
system
The heart is an involuntary muscle - cardiac muscle.
Starter
Watch the following video and write down the exercise and related sport for each muscle
Draw a table:

Muscle / Main function of the muscle / Gym Exercise/ Sporting example
Isotonic and Isometric Contractions...
Isotonic:
This type of contraction results in limb movement. For example, a press-up.
Isometric:
This type of contraction occurs when the muscle contracts but stays in a fixed position. For example, the plank position.
Tendon: A tissue that joins muscle to bone.
30.
31.
The 3 Functions of Muscles

Movement


Circulation

Body Shape

Cardiac Muscle

Cardiac muscle is unique to the HEART.

It never tires.

Task 2
Stick the muscle diagram in your book and label the 11 key muscles
Q1. Which muscle is contracting to allow the cyclist in the photo to flex his leg at the knee? (1 mark)


Exam Question (C Grade)
Q2. Which muscle is contracting to allow Jonny Wilkinson in the photo below to extend his leg at the knee? (1 mark)
Q3. Which of the following is the correct muscle type for the bicep:

A. Voluntary
B. Fast twitch
C. Slow twitch
D. Involuntary (1 mark)
Q4. When contracting the gastrocnemius:

A. Straightens the arm at the elbow
B. Bends the leg at the knee
C. Points the toes
D. Flexes the abdomen (1 mark)
Q5. State the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscle
(PAIRED DISCUSSION)

(2 marks)
6. Describe and explain how movement occurs at the elbow joint. (4 Marks)

In your answer try to include the following terms:

Bicep Tricep Flexion

Extension Contracts Relaxes

Shortens Lengthens


Agonist Antagonist
Exam Questions (B Grade)
Exam Questions (A/B Grade)
Q 7. Describe and explain the term ISOTONIC and relate it to a sporting action.
(2 Marks)

Q 8. Describe and explain the term ISOMETRIC and relate it to a sporting action.
(2 Marks)

Lifestyle, performance-enhancing drugs and the muscular system
Muscular atrophy - this occurs if you stop training and results in a loss of muscle mass and strength. This is a problem for athletes that become injured or ill.

Soft Tissue injuries - strains/tears/pulls. When muscle fibres are torn from their attachment to the tendon.

How do you solve the problem of soft tissue injuries?

How do you treat muscular injuries?
Rest
Rest allows the muscles to repair the damage caused by exercise. This allows it rebuild and strengthen. This makes rest and recovery an essential part of any exercise programme and needs to planned and included.

A good programme should include both short term and long term recovery. Athletes competing at a high level will do things such as reducing the number of training sessions they do but increasing the intensity. Once they have competed they may then take a complete break from all training before starting again to prepare for the next competition.

Too litte rest and recovery could lead to over training.
Diet
Proper nutrition is also important when recovering.

Energy stores need to be replenished with carbohydrates, and fluids (energy drink and water).

The muscular system requires sufficient amounts of protein to help the muscle repair and rebuild.

An athlete needs to have eaten within two hours of finishing exercise for it to be at its most beneficial.
Performance-enhancing Drugs
Best way to build and repair muscle is through safe training, eating well and including rest and recovery.

It is common now for athletes to use supplements such as protein pill or shake, creatine powder and other kinds of legal supplements. The market for this now across the world has become huge! If you eat a balanced healthy diet however this would not be necessary.

Some athletes use PED to build muscle. Anabolic steroids are the most commonly used as they increase muscle size and strength quickly and also speed up the recovery process after an athlete has finished training.

They also help an athlete to recover from injury quicker

Why is it important to have a strong muscular system
increase work capacity
decrease the chance of injury
prevent lower back pain
improves or prevents poor posture
improves athletic performance
aid rehabilitation and injury
Involuntary Muscles
The bicep contracts (This is called the agonist it is the main muscle that moves or prime mover).

The triceps must relax (this is the antagonist or opposing muscle that must relax).

The radius moves up.

Try to make this movement without tensing your tricep... what is happening?

Isotonic or Isometric?
We will now watch a myPEexam video on this - add any notes if you need to.
Full transcript