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Child development from 3-7 years
Transcript of Child development from 3-7 years
Gross motor skills
A 3-4 year old can usually jump from bottom step with 2 feet together
A 4-5 year old can hop on one foot at least once
A 6 year old can hop with good balance and a 7 year old can hop on either leg
A 3-4 year old can throw a ball overhand and kick a ball with force
A 4-5 year old can catch a large ball with both hands
A six year old can throw balls with accuracy
FINE MOTOR SKILLS
A 3-4 year old can builds a tower of 9/10 cubes and build one or more bridges of 3 cubes using 2 hands (by 3 and a half years)
A 4-5 year old can build a tower of 10 or more cubes and several bridges. Also builds models of 3 steps with 6 cubes, handling cubes correctly to get better view
A 3-4 year old holds a pencil near the point and uses it with good control (copies circles and letters V, H and T, imitates a cross)
A 4-5 year old has good control with pencils and copies some shapes and letters. They can draw a recognisable man – head, body, arms and legs
A 6 year old can hold a pencil like and adult and can write a range of letters of a similar size
A 7 year old can write letters more clearly. Capital and small letters are now in proportion
A 3-4 year old can carry simple conversations and is able to briefly describe present and sometimes past activities
A 4-5 year old uses past tense appropriately and understands sequence and time – uses terms such as ‘first’, ‘then’, ‘last’
A 3-4 year old can vary tone, pitch and volume of speech and can chant rhymes and songs
A 4-5 year old enjoys reciting singing rhymes and jingles
A 6 year old can remember and repeat songs and nursery rhymes
A 7 year old enjoys playing word games and riddles
Bee, H., and Boyd, D. (2007) The Developing Child. Eleventh Edition. United States, Pearson International.
Cowie, H. (2012) From Birth to Sixteen. Children’s Health, Social, Emotional and Linguistic Development. Abingdon, Routledge.
Hepworth, S., Rovet, J., and Taylor, M. (2001) Neurophysiological correlates of verbal and non verbal short-term memory in children: Repetition of words and faces. Psychophysiology. 38. 594-600.
Meggitt, C. (2012) Child Development. An Illustrated Guide. Harlow. Pearson Education Limited.
Munro, E. Prof. (2011) The Munro Review of Child Protection: Final report. A child-centred system. London, Department of Education.
Sharma, A., and Cockerill, H. (eds) (2014) Mary Sheridan's From Birth to Five Years: children's developmental progress fourth edition. London, Routledge.
Spreen, O., Risser, A., and Edgell, D. (1995) Developmental neuropsychology. New York, Oxford University Press.
The Department of Health (2009) Birth to Five. London, Crown Copyright.
The Department of Health (2009) Healthy Child Programme 5-19. London, Crown Copyright.
Van Der Molen, M., and Molenaar, P. (1994) Cognitive psychophysiology: A window to cognitive development and brain maturation. New York, Gilford.
Introduction - What influences a child to develop the way that they do?
Nature V Nurture
Born as a blank slate, ready to have all aspects of behaviour and personality influenced by environment
Personality and development are present at birth, environment plays little part
Internal or external influence
Usually a mixture of the two. Child’s personality emerges from the moment of birth, but behaviour and values of the parents influence the way he turns out
Values and beliefs
You change as a result of raising a child
The Healthy Child Programme(2009) states that habits and lifestyles that are established during childhood, adolescents and adulthood will influence and affect their health throughout their life
Therefore giving children the best help, learning opportunities and experiences while they are developing is vital. It has a direct impact upon the adults the grow into
Munro (2011) noted that if we fail to meet the health needs of our children and young people, it can lead on to problems in the future. It can also have a profound impact upon their mental health within adulthood
Children have unique minds and bodies. They need to be nurtured, supported and given every opportunity to thrive and develop within the crucial early and middle childhood years. Therefore enabling them to grow into mature, responsible, confident adults who can function within society
AREAS OF DEVELOPMENT
5 main areas
A 3-4 year old matches 2 or 3 primary colours and may know their names (usually red and yellow, often confusing green and blue)
A 4-5 year old can identify and name 5 colours
At 7 they can use colours appropriately for example putting green at the bottom of a page for grass
A 3-4 year old counts up to ten or more, but has little understanding of quantity after 2 or 3
A 4-5 year old counts fingers or objects in order to 5 and can count to around 12-15 without making a mistake
At 6-7 years they develop concepts of quantity, length and measurement
PERSONAL AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR
A 3-4 year old can be affectionate and make reference to emotions, they understand sharing, but tend to pursue own ideas when playing
A 4-5 year old is tender/protective to younger children and has an increasing understanding of the feelings and wishes of friends, engaging in bargaining, compromise and reconciliation
A 6-7 year old child can understand that other children or adults can appear happy, even if they do not feel happy inside. They are able to regulate their feelings especially if they do not want others to be aware of their inner emotional state
A 3-4 year old eats with a fork and spoon
A 4-5 year old uses a knife and fork competently
A 6-7 year old can carry out simple tasks such as peeling vegetables