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Transcript of Acculturation Prezi
Acculturation An example study:
East meets west: Ethnic identity, acculturation, and conflict in asian indian families.
Farver et al. (2002) Content What is acculturation? "Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original culture patterns of either or both groups" (Redfield, Linton and Herskovitv, 1936, pp. 149-152) The Conceptualisation Both cultures have influence, but in practice, one dominates the other
Psychological acculturation: individual-level changes arising from acculturation Individuals differ
due to personality and individual factors how changes may come about
the acculturation process neither strategy is static!
ideal strategy vs real strategy Acculturation outcomes Psychological adaption: individual's satisfaction and overall emotional well-being
Sociocultural adaption: how succesfully the individual acquires the appropriate cultural skills in living effectively in the new sociocultural milieu Implications for Theory and Research Criticism and limitations of Berry`s model
General criticism of the concept acculturation
1. acculturation categories
2. validity of marginalization
3. “one size fits all” approach Overview Criticism and limitations of Berry`s model acculturation categories requires classifying individuals:
on receiving- culture acquisition and
as high or low
on heritage-culture retention.
primary methods of classifying individuals: a priori values as cut points
midpoint on the range of possible scores
this can lead to biased results:
increases the likelihood that equal numbers of participants will be classified as high and low on each dimension
assumes that all four categories exist and are equally valid (Rudmin, 2003).
not all of Berry’s categories may exist in a given sample or population, and that some categories may have multiple subtypes.
likelihood to develop a cultural sense of self without drawing on either the heritage or receiving cultural contexts is likely low.
may be viable only for a small subgroup of migrants who reject (or feel rejected by) both their heritage and receiving cultures (Berry, 2006).
marginalization scales typically have poor reliability and validity compared with scales for the other categories (Cuellar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995; Unger et al., 2002) validity of marginalization
the same two forms of adaption and the same four acculturation categories, characterize all migrants equally
Not distinction between the
type of migrant,
the countries of origin and settlement
the ethnic group in question (Berry et al., 2006). “one size fits all” approach (Rudmin, 2003). According to Berry’s (1980) model and other similar approaches
- contributing to the receiving country’s economy or culture
voluntary immigrants who work as doctors, engineers, or other professionals
may be welcomed with open arms
- receiving country’s resources
refugees, immigrants ( low socioeconomic class backgrounds), asylum seekers, illegally immigrants
may be more likely to face discrimination (Louis, Duck, Terry, Schuller, & Lalonde, 2007)
context of reception
unfavorable context of reception are hypothesized as being among the major sources of
stress in the lives of immigrants (Segal & Mayadas, 2005).
encourages ethnic minority migrants to remain separated from the mainstream receiving culture.
Leads to reactive ethnicity
refers to holding even more strongly onto one’s cultural heritage and resisting adoption of the receiving culture
different motivational reasons for migration
ethnicity and cultural similarity (Canadian to US/ North Korean to US)
rejection or discrimination in the receiving society makes adapting more difficult (Portes & Rumbaut, 2001, 2006)
asylum seekers and refugees are likely to have experienced considerable trauma in their homelands (may influence their ability to adapt (Akhtar, 1999))
based on Berry’s acculturation model
but adjusting for the many variations among migrants
possible advantage of an more nuanced approach :
broader applicability — more explanatory power (Chirkov, 2009). Different treatment from members of the host society Discrimination Schwartz suggest A more nuanced approach subgroups of migrants face different types (and degrees) of acculturative challenges Different level of acculturative difficulties between individuals migrate as children or as adults
2nd migrate generation face different problems than the 1 st generation Between different types of migrants Between different generations of one type of migrants countless factors that affect the degree of acculturative change General criticism of the concept acculturation Focus on the United States as a Receiving Society The US is experiencing a massive wave
migrants are settling primarily in North America,
Western Europe and Oceania
individual differences in acculturation outcomes are the result of specific choices made by migrants. (acculturation categories)
individuals are able to decide which cultural elements they wish to acquire or retain and which elements they wish to discard or reject
some aspects of acculturation can be chosen, other aspects are constrained by demographic or contextual factors.
Many studies on acculturation include some form of mental or physical health outcome
(self-esteem, distress, drug and alcohol use, and chronic diseases.)
acculturation and health outcomes are often limited
immigrant paradox: foreign nativity protects against psychiatric disorders.
U.S.-born Latinos report higher rates for most psychiatric disorders than Latino immigrants.
(Alegria et al.,2007).
not clear whether the immigrant paradox is due to immigrants’:
acquisition of receiving-culture practices,
loss of heritage-culture practices
or both Any
Questions ? Voluntary immigrants:
leave their homelands by choice in search of employment, economic opportunities, marriage, or to join family members who have immigrated previously.
are those who are involuntarily displaced by war, persecution, or natural disasters and are resettled in a new country.
are those who, by their own choice seek sanctuary in a new country because of fear of persecution or violence.
defined as an individual who voluntarily travels to a new country for a specific purpose with full intentions to return to their countries of origin after his/her period of time is over (Sam & Berry, 2006 )
Examples of sojourners: international students, seasonal workers, expatriates,
tourists, missionaries etc. Berry's Acculturation Model ISOLATED EXAMINATION OF migrants Acculturation and Health: The Immigrant Paradox Four categories of migrants refugees asylum seekers voluntary immigrants Form of adaption is linked with acculturation profile (Berry, 2006) sojourners What influence does the family have on adolescents acculturation strategies? And how does different acculturation strategies in parents affect adolescent well-being and family conflict? Background Acculturation not always a straight forward process, especially not for second-generation immigrants Different expectations at home and in school hypotheses method: 180 adolescents and their parents. All parents born in India and all children still living at home Each adolescent and one parent completed questionnaires separately self-identification
family conflict More parents and adolescents identified as Indian, as opposed to American Most common among both groups was an integrated acculturation style
But, adolescents were more likely to have an assimilated style (n= 64 vs. n=34), and parents more likely to have a separated acculturation style (n=38 vs. n=19). Results Parent and Adolescent, acculturarion and ethnic Identity Acculturation and Reported family conflict In families where parents had a separated or marginalized acculturation style, more reported family conflict.
Less conflict in families that had an integrated or assimilated style. Acculturation gap had a significant effect on family conflict acculturation style and adolescent well being Adolescents with an integrated or assimilated style
reported higher self esteem, and lower anxiety than adolescents with a marginalized or separated acculturation style
Similarly acculturation gap led to significantly lower self-esteem reports, as well as higher anxiety among adolescents So, what does this study show? Integration and assimilation, over
over all, 'better' acculturation styles But, were the adolescents really
assimilated? Parents acculturation style affect many aspects of adolescents lives, especially family functioning Acculturation gap between parents
and adolescents important However... Need to consider the selective nature of sample Acculturation and ethnic identity is a dynamic process Southern California 'good' location for immigrants,
applicable to other places? 1. What is Acculturation?
2. Acculturation Applied - an Example study
3. Criticism and Limitations References Berry, J.W. Y.H. Poortinga, S.M. Breugelmans, A. Chasiotis, & D.L. Sam (2011). Cross-Cultural Psychology: Research and Applications (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., & Szapocznik, J. (2010). Rethinking the concept of acculturation: Implications for theory and research. American Psychologist, 65, 237-251
Farver, J. A.M., Narang, S. K., & Bhadha, B. R. (2002). East meets west: ethnic identity, acculturation, and conflic in Asian Indian families. Journal of family psychology, 16(3), 338-350. Second-generation immigrants an 'understudied' group Ethnic identity achievement in adolescents and the family's role in this. Parents and adolescents would be similar in their self-identification, acculturation style and ethnic identity achievement. Parent acculturation style and acculturation 'gap' between parents and adolescents will affect family conflict Adolescents with an integrated acculturation style will score higher on psychological well-being than those with an assimilated, separated or marginalized acculturation style. Similarly, higher acculturation gap will affect psychological well being negatively. Both parents and adolescents with an integrated style had higher ethnic identity achievement and were also more positive to their host country's 'culture'. Aim of the current study: To examine the influence of parent's acculturation style and ethnic identity achievement on adolescent's acculturation style, ethnic identity achievement, psychological well-being and family conflict.