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on 7 February 2013

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photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli A Presentation by
Lamar Davis
Mame Fall
Gervais Mbunkeu STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING What is Structural Engineering? Think of a human body What do Structural engineers do? Structural Engineering is a specialty field within civil engineering. Structural Engineers are responsible for the detail analysis and design of roads, buildings, airport terminals, schools, dams, pipelines, offshore structures, airplanes, spacecrafts, cars, ships, submarines, etc.
Structural engineers focus on the design of each structure namely the beams, columns, walls, roofs, floors, and foundations, and the connections that hold all of them together. Design Successes The Willis Tower, formerly The Sears Tower,
Chicago, Illinois The Burj Khalifa Dubai This is the world's tallest man-made structure clocking in at 2,722 feet(830m). It was completed in 2010 after roughly 22 million man-hours starting on September 21 2004. It hosts 163 floors, spreads over 280,000 sq.m residential and office space and a Giorgio Armani hotel. Tower+ Podium: 465,000 sq.m area. Concrete used : 250,000 cu.m (weight of 110,000 elephants) Steel rebars: 39,000 tonnes (laid end to end this would extend over a quarter of the way around the world) Curtain walls: 83,600 sq.m of glass and 27,900 sq.m of metal (equivalent of 17 soccer fields) The total weight aluminum used on Burj Khalifa is equivalent to that of five A380 aircraft and the total length of stainless steel bull nose fins is 293 times the height of Eiffel Tower in Paris. Design Failures The Hyatt Regency Hotel walkways collapse in Kansas City, MS in 1981 The Sampoong Department Store, Seoul, South Korea On June 29, 1995, in the space of 20 seconds, the Sampoong Department Store in Seoul, South Korea fell to the ground, killing 502 people and injuring 937. Criminal negligence, blatant disregard for ethical engineering practices, and shoddy construction led to the largest peacetime disaster in South Korean history. Without the skeleton structure we wouldn't be able to stand or walk. The Willis Tower was completed in 1973 for roughly $150 Millions. Until 1998, it was considered the world's tallest building at 1,454 feet with about 110 stories. It weighs more than 440 million lbs, supported by 114 piles sunk deep into the earth so that they stand firmly on hard, solid bedrock. It is one of the most efficient structures designed to withstand wind. It is made with enough of steel to build 50,000 cars, and enough concrete to build an 8-lane, 5-mile-long highway. It also has 16,100 windows cleaned by 6 roof-mounted robotic machines. On July 17 1981 merely one year since its completion, the walkways on the 2nd and 4th floors of the Hyatt Regency collapsed, one on top of the other killing 114 and injuring nearly 200.
The cause for the collapse was determined to be in the engineering design for the suspended walkways.
The National Bureau of standards (NBS) discovered that the cause of the walkway collapse was that the rod hanger, attached to the ceiling and to the walkways, pulled through the box beam due to lack of redundancy of load-bearing factors, causing the connection supporting the 4th walkway to collapse onto the 2rd floor. Structural Engineering at Howard Meet Dr. Robert E. Efimba,
Sc. D., P.E. Associate
Professor of Civil Engineering Pr. Efimba received his S.B. (1963) in Civil Eng.
his S.M.(1965) in Structural Engineering, his C.E.
in Structural Engineering, and his Sc.D. in Structural
Mechanics(1972) all from M.I.T.
He's been at Howard since 1975 and an Associate Professot since 1982. His research interests are in advance structural systems and finite element analysis for structures and materials, Computer-Aided experimental Mechanics, and Engineering Mechanics education. Dr. Efimba's written several books, papers, in Structural design, and won several awards including "Best Paper in the field of Structural Design"
He's mentored several leaders in the Civil Engineering including our very own Dr. Rhoulac-Smith. Several of his students have gone on to become prominent engineers and scholars in the field of Civil Engineering. Licensing and Certification *The process to become a structural engineer is not universal across the United States and the world, some states and countries have specific provisions in place that distinguish structural engineers from professional engineers in other disciplines. Steps to Becoming a Certified Civil Engineer
Attain a BS degree in Civil Engineering from an ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) accredited school
Take the FE (Fundamentals of Engineering) Exam* and pass
Become an EIT (Engineer in Training) and work in the field under the supervision of a certified Professional Engineer
Take the PE (Professional Engineer) Exam* after working a minimum of 4 years in the field as an EIT and pass the exam Additional Steps to Become a Certified Structural Engineer*
Take the Structural I Exam and pass
Take the Structural II Exam and pass
Take the Structural III Exam and pass (depends on state)
LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Certification [optional] Salary *To ensure uniformity, the NCEES (National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying) grade both the FE exam and PE exam Civil Engineering is the oldest form of engineering...

So what's new? "Hot Topics" Now a repair technique that wraps up damaged columns using shape memory alloys could make the bridges stronger than ever. Bridges are usually repaired using either sheets of fibre-reinforced polymer or concrete jackets. Although FRP sheeting is quick to apply, it can take at least a week for the resinous material to cure to the required strength. Concrete jackets, on the other hand, take days of construction work to install. A team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is developing a repair method based on shape memory alloy wire. This "remembers" its previous shape and returns to it on heating. The first stage of the repair is to remove loose concrete from the damaged column and replace it with quick-setting mortar. Shrink-wrap a bridge to make it stronger Basically, the "shrink wrap" minimizes future damages, saving both time and money... Civil Engineers love saving money. "Hot Topics" Invisibility cloak could protect buildings from earthquakes! (Cool Right?) Mathematicians from the UK University of Manchester have developed the theory for a ‘cloaking’ device that could protect buildings and structures from vibrations and natural disasters such as earthquakes. Dr Parnell’s paper entitled ‘Nonlinear pre-stress for cloaking from antiplane elastic waves’ illustrates that by cloaking components of structures with pressurized rubber, powerful waves such as those produced by an earthquake can pass around the structure. This prevents serious damage or destruction that would otherwise be inevitable. This technique is referred to as an "invisible cloak" because the rubber is build into the structures and protects buildings without affecting the aesthetics of the structure. Once again, we save money when a disaster occurs because damages are minimized. Howard University Providing "Leadership for America and the Global Community." Through organizations such as Engineers Without Borders and Gear-Up, Howard Undergrads are given the opportunity to travel abroad and research engineering projects that aim to tackle technical problems that developing countries are currently facing. We thank you for your time and attention.

Does anyone have any questions? PASS THE BALL How many more tests do you have to take in order to become a certified Structural Engineer?
What does LEED stand for? Why is it important?
What's the world's largest office building by floor size?
It took approximately 20,000 workers to build the famous Taj Mahal. True or False?
The Delaware Aqueduct in New York is the longest tunnel in the world. True or False?
The two main cables on the Golden Gate Bridge have over 200,000 miles of wires. True or false?
The Lincoln Tunnel which connects Weehawken NJ and Manhattan, NY has an average daily traffic of about how many cars?( 100,000, 110,00, 250,000) http://www.istructe.org/news-articles/2012/industry-news/shrink-wrap-a-bridge-to-make-it-stronger http://www.istructe.org/news-articles/2012/industry-news/invisibility-cloak-could-protect-buildings
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